Tu 204. Photo. Video. Driving salon. Characteristics. Reviews
Tupolev Tu-204 it airliner developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the late eighties. The liner is designed for medium-haul passenger flights. Tu-204 was released as the replacement of obsolete aircraft medium-range Tu-154. According to its basic characteristics similar to the Tu-204 Airbus A320, Boeing 737 и Boeing 757.
According to the original project was planned to equip the aircraft with three jet engines D90. But in the future, the project was redesigned and received two prototype aircraft engine suspended on pylons under the wings of the aircraft. For the Tupolev Design Bureau, such a scheme layout engine used for the first time. In the design of the aircraft was widely used application of composite materials based on steklougleplastikov.
So Tu-204 a passenger airplane, which produces medium-range flights. The development of this model started in 1973 year. It has been developed and reviewed a number of possible models and options of the new air machines. The calculations were conducted in the Tupolev design bureau, which was parallel to the development of other models of aircraft.
The history of the medium-haul aircraft Tu-204
Chief Designer, which is developing a new passenger liner, was appointed LL Selyakov. In the original version was planned to create an aircraft that will be 2 engine, and basically a new model very much was to be very similar to the Tu-134. Also a lot of design decisions have been borrowed from the projected Tu-136.
Already in the middle of 70-x planes are becoming more like the US counterparts, such as MD-10 and L-1011. The design models thought through large luggage compartment in which it would be possible to transport containers. Because of this, the unit became the double-decked, and had to change the layout of the fuselage. This innovation made it possible to change the ratio of filling aircraft cargo and passengers.
In August, 81-year government set the task of creating a three-engine aircraft, which are to be used in the D-90, which at the time were the most advanced and cost-effective. But after the creation of the layout design of the aircraft there was no use to him, which is why it was decided to return to the dual-engine model. Engines planned to hang on pylons of wings. This project is a passenger plane has been completely revised and was the basis for the creation of the Tu-204.
In 1987 year Ulyanovsk plant began preparations for the release of Tu-204. The first prototype of this model was made in 88 year, and in the air first Tu-204 was raised in the early 89 years. The full set of tests was completed at the end of the year 1993. The company "Aviastar" did not wait for the end of the test and started manufacturing the aircraft back in 90 year. In January 1995 years Tu-204 has received the certificate of the Russian Federation Flight suitability. The first flight of this machine is made between Moscow and mineral waters.
Description airliner Tu-204
In developing the model aircraft carried out close cooperation between the many scientific centers of the Russian Federation. Because of this, this unit has a lot of advantages over similar models in the world. Tu-204 set high wings that had supercritical profiles, as well as vertical surfaces that improve aerodynamics at the ends of the consoles. The entire fuselage is made from the new high strength aluminum alloys, and the connection housing parts is made by riveting.
When designing composite materials are also used, which account for about 18%. To better balance the aircraft in its plumage integrated fuel tank, which includes 2,8 tons of fuel.
This model is the first passenger aircraft in Russia, where the system is installed wire control. It can perform automatic landing of the machine even in very difficult weather conditions. For a more comfortable working pilots made system called "dark cabin", it helps reduce pilot workload.
The aircraft is equipped with the domestic system of avionics, that uses 6 displays. With their help, displays information for pilots on flight status and all the functional parts of the aircraft. This system automatically diagnoses of all the equipment, and also supports satellite communications. Innovation and touched the wing structure. It appeared flaps, which are double-slit and slats that run along the front edge of the wing. As for the chassis, it is made of new technologies.
Designers was well thought out system of the cabin air supply system. Its main task is to select and cooling air which flows through the two independent line. This system can automatically maintain the optimum temperature inside the plane. A special feature is that the air that flows into the middle plane, shown directly from the engine compressors.
Speaking of the power supply, it should be noted that the aircraft is provided by generators that are installed on the engines of cars, as well as regular batteries. Online airplane voltage is 115 volts, and in some models - 200 400 volts with a frequency hertz.
The entire hydraulic system is driven by pumps which operate on engines. In case of emergencies, each hydraulic system is equipped with additional electric pumps.
On Tu-204, as in many other aircraft, there is a problem of icing units external device. Therefore, a complex set of systems that prevent this problem. In the main engine air intakes need protection, receivers pressure, fan cowl and windshields in the cockpit. The wings and fuselage are generally not suffer from icing, therefore do not need additional protection. It should be noted that in many other models of aircraft icing housing possible. This feature of the Tu-204 marked by special commissions of international organizations.
Passenger airliner Tu-204 was qualitatively new generation of Russian aircraft industry. When creating this machine we took into account all the requirements of modern aviation industry and the requirements of international standards. Designers qualitatively new unit took into account the fact that he had been economical and thus did not create a big noise, and meet international environmental requirements. According to initial plans of designers and customers Tu-204 should be as successful as the Tu-154, and replace it. But in the years 90-air significantly reduced, leading to a small order of new aircraft. Problems 90-x is not allowed to carry out all the plans that concern the aircraft Tu-204.
Position Tu-204 today
Before our time was only made 40-204 Tu models of various modifications. Most of them serve for the good of the homeland, but some have been sold abroad, namely in China and Egypt. In September 2009, the designers and developers of passenger aircraft Tu-204 was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation. Despite the undoubted advantages of this model of large commercial hype is not reached.
In addition, in 90-years of civil aviation, we can say, it broke an important role in this also played an attitude airlines to domestic producers. It is because of this most of the companies in transportation of passengers believe that Russia has not yet learned how to produce high-quality passenger planes. Air carriers are willing to spend their own funds to purchase the decommissioned old "Boeing", than to buy a new Tu-204, which is not enough in what concedes overseas counterpart.
Tupolev Design Bureau on the basis of passenger aircraft Tu-204 has created a whole range of different modifications, namely 16 was created special versions of the brand. Some of them were even cargo aircraft and one Tu-234 was a long haul, which could fly 9 thousand kilometers. Devices that are made to order, and is usually for a cordon, go with the English booth. But the main customer is our state.
According to experts, the most successful and competitive model is the model of the Tu-204SM. That it can compete for leadership with foreign counterparts such as "Boeing-737» and A320.
The test flight of the first flight model of the Tu-204 held January 2 1989 years. During all the tests were made in the design of aircraft improvements and enhancements. The aircraft was equipped with a wire system (FBWCS). The cockpit is set six color display for displaying flight data. On the ship were installed jet engines PS90-A. During the air test the plane flew over thousands of hours.
In 1992 it was presented the new aircraft which has received the designation Tu-204-120.
In this model it was used turbojet engines RB-211-535E4 English company "Rolls Royce" and western avionics company "Honeywell".
Salon TU-204 photo salon
The first certificate of airworthiness aircraft was December 29 1994 years.
Airliner meets all modern European standards of ICAO.
The Tu-204 is one of those aircraft that can safely to land with all the engine disconnected.
Tu-204-300 was released VIP-class aircraft - Tu-204-300A, passenger compartment which is in the class of "flying suites"
In addition to the passenger version it was designed and cargo aircraft.
Cargo export version of the Tu-204-200S successfully operated by several airlines in Europe and in Egypt.
In 2005 year began to exploit a shortened, six meters - Tu-204-300. Which is also known as the Tu-234. In this version installed turbofan engines PS90-A2. The aircraft has a maximum takeoff weight of 107,6 tonnes with a range of up to 9300 kilometers. This version is capable of carrying passengers 166.
Tu-204 interior scheme
To date, it produced a little more than seventy Tu-204 different modifications.
Features of the Tu-204-100 (basic version):
Year of manufacture: 1990 year - our time.
Length: 46,14 m.
Height: 13,88 m.
Wingspan: 41,8 m.
Wing area: 184,17 m2
The width of the fuselage: 3,8 m
Cruising speed: 840 km / h.
Maximum speed: 860 km / h
Range: 6800 km
Ceiling: 12200 m
Number of seats: 210 places
Crew: 3 person
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