Tu-2 (ANT-58, the plane «103»), which is the codification of NATO called "The Bat", a Soviet twin-engine bomber daytime fast during the Great Patriotic War.
History of the Tu-2
On the establishment of long-day dive bomber, capable of a precision strikes on enemy ships first began in April of 1939
The plane had to have a performance speed and service ceiling, close to the enemy fighters, and perform high-speed dive with minimal attack. The aircraft was planned to install four turbo engine M-105TK, modern electrical equipment for operations over the sea in any weather.
Project Bureau was named "product 57», and officially - the plane PB. It was being developed in parallel twin-engine unit PB, equipped with engines M-120 TK.
After the start of World War II, the creation of twin-engined dive planes to attack British ships raised doubts because of ineffectiveness. But developments in the "product 57» were used for the development of "land" twin-engine dive bomber - "aircraft 103». The official name of the new aircraft - FB (bomber). This aircraft was the second most important Soviet aviamashinoy, which was designed by A. Tupolev after his arrest.
The preliminary draft was ready by February 1940 city, and in March decided to build a prototype.
The design involves the installation of engines 2m 120K-in backup option provides motors AM 35A. Built aircraft were engaged in May 1940, and in August Tupolev bureau provided drawings. In the process of manufacturing the device was planned perekomplektatsiya engines AM-37 liquid cooling.
The design of the Tu-2
By linking Tu-2 - this twin-engine all-metal high having dvuhkilevoe plumage wing caisson structure with brake bars and flaps. The aircraft had been well thought out composition and deployment of defensive weapons, fire alarm system, which filled the fuel tanks with inert gas, the location of the jobs of the crew. These advantages make the construction of Tu-2 advanced compared to most aircraft of the time.
The first flight of the Tu-2 29.01.1941 held under the supervision of a test pilot MA Nyuhtikova. On state tests given military action without taking a lot of time and completed their June-July 1941, in parallel with the plane 103U.
The machine was designed to finalize without starting serial production. After the equipment of a workplace for the fourth crew member (arrow Defense upper hemisphere) decided to deploy serial production.
In Omsk at an aircraft factory in the number 166 1941, the aircraft started to collect 103U which acquired the name of the series 103S and assemble engines M-82 air cooling.
"The product 60», or 103V aircraft, aircraft engines with the new M-120TK-2 developed in parallel with the device Tu-2. The first production aircraft 103VS entered service in the Soviet Army in March 1942 In the course of performing military tasks decided to carry out improvements. In particular, we strengthened defensive armament and improved powerplants as improve the reliability of their work. In total, the plant released №166 80-2 TU engines M-82.
17.07.1943 was resumed full-scale production of Tu-2 with two motors M-82FN, which was named "product 61» or Tu-2S.
The power plant have better traction, but had a relatively large mass and drag, resulting in deteriorated maximum airspeed. Also retool armament. You could carry a bomb on board the 3 3 tons of total weight. Defensive armament received at the disposal of guns such as UBS caliber 12,7 mm instead ShKAS (7,62 mm).
Considerable work has been done to simplify the design, reduce weight and unify production. For the sake of increasing the combat endurance machine elements subjected to simplify the hydraulic and electrical equipment, took off interior light and shielded deficient grille is replaced by a normal, if present in the composition of the natural shielding of the aircraft structure.
The first production Tu-2 has a serious drawback - the tendency for a reversal during the completion of the run. This was a consequence of nedoskonalno elaborate system of directional control and poor performance gidrofiksatora neutral feed wheel. In the future unified system with the aircraft Li-2.
Tu-2S became the basic model for the production of the scout-2R, which, in addition fotoapparatnogo equipment, present a full combat arms.
Initially launched serial production at the Kazan aviation plant № 22, and then it was transferred to the plant № 23 in Moscow and Omsk № 166. In wartime, released about 800 aircraft sorties in the front are committed 750 machines.
In total, during mass production (1942-1952 years.) Plants of Soviet industry produced Tu 2649-2.
Comparison with peers Tu-2
Given the specifics of performance, the technological features of production, the ratio of combat losses, the Tu-2 has become the most effective and successful Soviet bombers of World War II, despite a small contribution to Germany's surrender. Unfortunately, the features of martial law did not allow timely expand the mass production of the aircraft.
The main drawback of all modifications of the Tu-2 was a bad view from the cockpit, which is inferior to almost all counterparts of the time. For the production of this aircraft Tupolev was given the rank of Major General.
Tupolev Tu-2 characteristics:
|Wing area, m2||48.52|
|engine's type||PD Shvetsov Ash 2-82|
|Power, hp||X 2 1850|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||444|
|Practical range, km||2020|
|Rate of climb, m / min||490|
|Practical ceiling, m||9000|
|Armament:||Two 20-mm cannon ShVAK,|
|Three 7.62-mm machine gun and one ShKAS 12,7-mm machine gun UBT|
|10 jet guns to missiles RS-132|
|normal bomb load - 1000 kg|
|maximum - 2000 kg into overdrive - 3000 kg|
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