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Tu-2

Tupolev Tu-2

 

Tu-2 (ANT-58, the plane «103»), which is the codification of NATO called "The Bat", a Soviet twin-engine bomber daytime fast during the Great Patriotic War.

History of the Tu-2

On the establishment of long-day dive bomber, capable of a precision strikes on enemy ships first began in April of 1939

Tu-2

The plane had to have a performance speed and service ceiling, close to the enemy fighters, and perform high-speed dive with minimal attack. The aircraft was planned to install four turbo engine M-105TK, modern electrical equipment for operations over the sea in any weather.

Project Bureau was named "product 57», and officially - the plane PB. It was being developed in parallel twin-engine unit PB, equipped with engines M-120 TK.

After the start of World War II, the creation of twin-engined dive planes to attack British ships raised doubts because of ineffectiveness. But developments in the "product 57» were used for the development of "land" twin-engine dive bomber - "aircraft 103». The official name of the new aircraft - FB (bomber). This aircraft was the second most important Soviet aviamashinoy, which was designed by A. Tupolev after his arrest.

The preliminary draft was ready by February 1940 city, and in March decided to build a prototype.

Tu-2

The design involves the installation of engines 2m 120K-in backup option provides motors AM 35A. Built aircraft were engaged in May 1940, and in August Tupolev bureau provided drawings. In the process of manufacturing the device was planned perekomplektatsiya engines AM-37 liquid cooling.

The design of the Tu-2

By linking Tu-2 - this twin-engine all-metal high having dvuhkilevoe plumage wing caisson structure with brake bars and flaps. The aircraft had been well thought out composition and deployment of defensive weapons, fire alarm system, which filled the fuel tanks with inert gas, the location of the jobs of the crew. These advantages make the construction of Tu-2 advanced compared to most aircraft of the time.

The first flight of the Tu-2 29.01.1941 held under the supervision of a test pilot MA Nyuhtikova. On state tests given military action without taking a lot of time and completed their June-July 1941, in parallel with the plane 103U.

The machine was designed to finalize without starting serial production. After the equipment of a workplace for the fourth crew member (arrow Defense upper hemisphere) decided to deploy serial production.

In Omsk at an aircraft factory in the number 166 1941, the aircraft started to collect 103U which acquired the name of the series 103S and assemble engines M-82 air cooling.

Tu-2 photo color

"The product 60», or 103V aircraft, aircraft engines with the new M-120TK-2 developed in parallel with the device Tu-2. The first production aircraft 103VS entered service in the Soviet Army in March 1942 In the course of performing military tasks decided to carry out improvements. In particular, we strengthened defensive armament and improved powerplants as improve the reliability of their work. In total, the plant released №166 80-2 TU engines M-82.

17.07.1943 was resumed full-scale production of Tu-2 with two motors M-82FN, which was named "product 61» or Tu-2S.

The power plant have better traction, but had a relatively large mass and drag, resulting in deteriorated maximum airspeed. Also retool armament. You could carry a bomb on board the 3 3 tons of total weight. Defensive armament received at the disposal of guns such as UBS caliber 12,7 mm instead ShKAS (7,62 mm).

Considerable work has been done to simplify the design, reduce weight and unify production. For the sake of increasing the combat endurance machine elements subjected to simplify the hydraulic and electrical equipment, took off interior light and shielded deficient grille is replaced by a normal, if present in the composition of the natural shielding of the aircraft structure.

The first production Tu-2 has a serious drawback - the tendency for a reversal during the completion of the run. This was a consequence of nedoskonalno elaborate system of directional control and poor performance gidrofiksatora neutral feed wheel. In the future unified system with the aircraft Li-2.

Tu-2S became the basic model for the production of the scout-2R, which, in addition fotoapparatnogo equipment, present a full combat arms.

Tu-2

Initially launched serial production at the Kazan aviation plant № 22, and then it was transferred to the plant № 23 in Moscow and Omsk № 166. In wartime, released about 800 aircraft sorties in the front are committed 750 machines.

In total, during mass production (1942-1952 years.) Plants of Soviet industry produced Tu 2649-2.

Comparison with peers Tu-2

Given the specifics of performance, the technological features of production, the ratio of combat losses, the Tu-2 has become the most effective and successful Soviet bombers of World War II, despite a small contribution to Germany's surrender. Unfortunately, the features of martial law did not allow timely expand the mass production of the aircraft.

The main drawback of all modifications of the Tu-2 was a bad view from the cockpit, which is inferior to almost all counterparts of the time. For the production of this aircraft Tupolev was given the rank of Major General.

Tupolev Tu-2 characteristics:



Modification Tu-2
Wingspan, m 18.86
Length m 13.80
Height, m 4.13
Wing area, m2 48.52
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 7601
normal takeoff 10538
maximum take-off 11768
Fuel l 2200
engine's type PD Shvetsov Ash 2-82
Power, hp X 2 1850
Maximum speed km / h  
near the ground 444
on high 521
Practical range, km 2020
Rate of climb, m / min 490
Practical ceiling, m 9000
Crew 4
Armament: Two 20-mm cannon ShVAK,
Three 7.62-mm machine gun and one ShKAS 12,7-mm machine gun UBT
10 jet guns to missiles RS-132
normal bomb load - 1000 kg
maximum - 2000 kg into overdrive - 3000 kg

 

Tu-2 video

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Comments

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Tu-2 - this is a very well-known twin-engine aircraft. It was created in 1941 year, and it gave him the opportunity to create a fast bomber. He is known because it took an active part in World War II. He flew already 9 years (as for me it's not enough).
More interesting to me is that the design engineers wanted to create one such aircraft, which would rise above the enemy fighters, it would give a great advantage.
No wonder then that the plane came so productive, fast and good work, because in order to build it were caused by the most experienced engineers. The plane was created in a situation of war, so it was necessary as soon as possible complete its creation.
During World War II the Tu-2 showed his excellent qualities, such aircraft as it was very small. I believe that he brought the war is not past successes, as it was used for aerial attacks very often and very often showed excellent results and was going back home.
Over time, normal Tu-2 began to improve and he Stavan completely unique. It added to the functions that could only small planes. So it happened that the Tu-2 was a very good aircraft and after the WWII era.

Nice to meet the optimistic Botha.

Hello. My wife and I recently were in a museum, "Museum of the Polish Army." I saw this monster there. I read a little about it. I must say that our craftsmen fellows. Make a dive bomber, and even in such a short time is, as the saying goes, "you do not have it."

It seems to me that any fan of the history of military aircraft, one way or another, heard about the legendary Tu-2. I will express only my opinion. This is the best Soviet front-line bomber for the whole WWII and naturally the best among its kind in the whole world. For all the characteristics (speed, bomb load, range) Tupolev's offspring completely exceeded Pe-2. He also could easily compete with the American B-25 and the German Junkers. I should note that the piloting of Tu-2 was very simple. This fact is even noted by test pilots, and the system itself was made in such a way that its piloting was possible even with one engine.

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