Tu-160. White Swan. A photo. Characteristics.
Work on the development of the airplane TU-160 "White Swan"- Missile supersonic bomber range aviation began in 1968, the OKB Tupolev A in 1972, the preliminary design has been made such an aircraft wing with changeable geometry in model year 1976-160 Tu project was approved by the Commission of the type of engine NK... It 32 specifically for this aircraft model was developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Kuznetsova in 1977 year.
These strategic bombers in NATO classification called "Black Jack", and the Americans in the slang - "bludgeon» (Black Jack - to beat a club). But our pilots called them "white swans" - and this is very similar to the truth. The supersonic Tu-160 beautiful and elegant, even with formidable weapons and stunning power. Armed for their chosen X-55 - subsonic cruise missiles and small-sized X-15 - aeroballistic missiles that were placed on the multi-position installations under the wings.
Layout Tu-160 1977 approved at the end of the year, and pilot production company MMZ "Experience" (in Moscow) began to build three prototypes. Kazan production of manufactured fuselages, Novosibirsk made wing and stabilizer, in Voronezh - gruzootseke leaf, and in the city of Gorky - landing gear. The assembly of the first car «70-01» ended in January 1981 in the town of Zhukovsky.
Tu-160 serial «70-01» was first tested in the air in December 1981 18 year. On state tests, which were completed in the middle of the year 1989, 160-aircraft Tu were released four cruise missiles X-55, as the main armament of the aircraft. The maximum speed of the aircraft in horizontal flight was 2200 km / h. This speed of operation is limited to 2000 km / h - it was introduced because of the condition of the resource limit. Many Tu-160 was given personal names as warships. The first Tu-160 named "Ilya Muromets".
The crew of the Tu-160: 4 person.
Engines (Turbine) four pieces NC - 32 turbofans 4h14.000 / 25.000 kg (Rod: Worker / afterburner).
Unit three-shaft, dual circuit, with afterburner. Its launch comes from the air starter.
For the left pillar of the main chassis is APU - electric motor control system with redundancy hydromechanical
MASS and load: normal takeoff - 267600 kg, the empty aircraft - 110000 kg, the maximum combat - 40000 kg, fuel - 148000 kg.
Flight data: 2000 km / h - speed of flight at a height, 1030 km / h - the flight from the ground, from the 260 to 300 km / h - landing speed, 16000 m - the ceiling for the flight, 13200 km - practical range, 10500 km - duration flight at maximum load.
Tu-160 - one of the combat aircraft of the USSR, on which the press found out before it was built, in a few years. In November 1981 25, the aircraft is ready for testing in the suburban town of Zhukovsky (Ramenskoye). The car was standing with two Tu-144 and was photographed by a passenger of the plane, mounted, on a nearby airfield Bykovo. Since the bomber got his nickname «Ram-P» (Ram - from Ramenskoye) and NATO code - «Black Jack». With this name the world presented the heaviest bomber of all time.
On the SALT negotiations in-2 70-ies of the last century, Leonid Brezhnev said that, in contrast to the US In-1, the new strategic bomber designed in the Soviet Union. The press has mentioned that it will produce at the factory in Kazani.A today?
In the decay of the Soviet Union Tu-160 it was divided between the republics. 19 of them went to the Ukraine, Regiment in Pryluky. Eight were transferred to the account of the debts for Russian gas, and the rest simply sawn. In Poltava, you can visit the last Ukrainian "swan", converted into a museum.
Tu-160V (Tu-161) - missile project, which has as a part of a power plant that runs on liquid hydrogen. Taking into account the characteristics of the fuel system from the base case is different dimensions of the fuselage. Liquefied hydrogen, which is used as a motor fuel assemblies, to reserve at temperatures up -253 ° C. Additionally equipped with a helium system, which is responsible for the management of cryogenic engines, and nitrogen - performs control vacuum in the cavities of the aircraft insulation.
Tu-160 NC-74 - modification of the Tu-160, having as part of a cost-bypass turbojet engine with afterburner NC-74. These power plants commissioned gathered in the city of Samara on SNTK. ND Kuznetsova. The use of aircraft engines has increased the data parameter range.
Tu-160P - modification, which is a long-range heavy fighter escort, who could carry on board missiles "Air-air", and having an average long range.
Tu-160PP - project of electronic warfare aircraft. At the moment, there is only a mockup, defined the characteristics of the new aircraft and the composition of the equipment.
Tu-160K - aircraft project is part of the Aviation and Missile complex "Merlin." It brings to the stage of conceptual design to the finished CB "South." Chief Designer was V.F.Utkin. Work on the ARC "Merlin" held in 1983-1984 years. to improve the effectiveness and survivability of ballistic missiles during a nuclear explosion, and to test the functionality of the energy carrier aircraft. "Merlin-R" is armed with rockets.
This small-sized two-stage ICBM 4-generation. It was completed marching solid-composite propellant. In flight mode, it uses liquid monopropellant. Load carrier aircraft Tu-160K was 50 t. This meant that the modification could carry two ICBMs "Merlin-P" weighing 24,4 tons each on the board. In view of the Tu-160K flight range of its effective use was in a distance of 10 thousand. Km.
On the stage of the project resulted in the development of ground equipment for aircraft coordination in December 1984 of
missile control system "Merlin-R" autonomous, inertial, with connections to external sources of information. Coordinates and velocity missiles arrived on board the satellite, and from astrokorrektora refined angles of position command devices. The first stage of controls - is the aerodynamic control surfaces, the second - controls the rotary nozzle. IDB planned to be equipped with multiple warheads, with individual guidance, and MS, which were intended to break the enemy missile. Work on the ARC "Merlin" were stopped in the middle of 80-ies of XX century.
Tu-160SK - plane, which was intended to carry a three-stage "Burlak" fluid system mass of 20 t. According to the calculations of designers into orbit could lead to 600-1100 kg of cargo, and the shipping cost 2-2,5 times cheaper than using a carrier rocket with a similar capacity. Start missiles from Tu-160SK should occur at altitudes 9000-14 000 m speed of the aircraft by up to 850 1600 km / h. Features of the complex "Burlak" had superior American counterpart subsonic launch complex, whose support was Boeing B-52, manned launcher Pegasus. Appointment "Burlak" - satellite constellation in the event of mass destruction airfields. Develop complex began in 1991, at entry into service was planned in 1998-2000 years. The complex also had to be ground handling station and command and measuring point. Flight range Tu-160KS to the place of start of the carrier rocket was 5000 km. 19.01.2000 between aerospace corporation "Air Launch" and "Samara Space Center" in the city Samara signed regulatory documents on cooperation towards the establishment of aerospace complex "Air Launch".
Tu-160M - the newest upgrade of Tu-160. It includes new weapons and avionics. It may carry on board up to 90 OFAB-500U weighing 500 kg each. As experts believe, the Russian bomber bomber in many respects ahead of the British counterpart - Typhoon fighter. Flight range of domestic aircraft without refueling more than the Briton in 4 times. Also Tu-160M capable of carrying on board more than non-nuclear missiles and bombs, and has a better indicator of the efficiency of the engines.
Tupolev Tu-160. Gallery.
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