Tu-16, which was to codify the NATO name "Badger" - heavy twin-engine jet the Soviet multi-purpose aircraft. For the production of the story released in different versions. Serial production of the aircraft was carried out on three aircraft plants with 1953 1963 by city
Nes military service in the former USSR and the countries of the former Soviet Union over 50 years. It exported to Egypt, Iraq and Indonesia. In China, sold under the name XianH-6. There were built more than 1500 copies Tu-16.
History of the Tu-16
The first long-range bomber of the Soviet Union in the postwar period was the piston Tu-4. However, shortly after its release, it became clear that the future of the long-range fighter turboprop and turbojet engines. The results of the Korean War showed that a well-equipped enemy air defense hard to break through the well-armed, but the low-speed In-29.
In addition, the Soviet Navy demanded the appearance of aircraft capable of exceeding deter attacks by armed ships of Western navies.
In 1948, the following requirements for the project Tu-16 have been identified:
- Operating range - 3000 km;
- flight at transonic speed;
- bomb load - 3-7 tonnes;
The only problem at the time was the lack of engine capable of providing the above-mentioned characteristics.
The OKB. Tupolev is working on the creation of prototype Tu-16. Among them are the front-line twin-engine bomber with swept wings - model «82». He did not get into serial production due to release more thorough device IL-28 Ilyushin Design Bureau. However, achievements, ideas and technical solutions that were used in the process of designing, served as the basis for the creation of the Tu-22. The predecessor of the Tu-16 was the aircraft «86», built by the summer of 1949 2 He could carry tons of bombs on the distance to 4000 km, the maximum speed was 980 km / h, service ceiling - 13 400 m.
Following the development and mass production in the Soviet Union a new nuclear bomb RDS-3 needed to create a plane that could bear the weight of the weapon 5 tons over long distances. The project «86» could not cope with the task. Calculations carried out in the Tupolev has shown that it is necessary to increase the weight and overall performance of the aircraft and engine thrust in 1,5-2 times. In proactively Tupolev Design Bureau started to «88» model which in series production has gained the name of Tu-16. 5.07.1951 was finally approved preliminary design.
During the tests revealed some shortcomings, and the plane was sent for revision. They were aimed at facilitating the design and provision of protection against a nuclear explosion.
In the Soviet Army adopted the plane arrived in 1953, the serial production of Tu-16 1953 started in October and was held on with 1953 1963, the three aircraft plants. Kazan aircraft plant produced 800 machines, Kuibyshev №1 - 543, Voronezh - 166.
During the operation of the aircraft in introducing new equipment and weapons systems. Tu-16 removed from the Russian weapons in the early 90-ies. Bombers collected in China (Xian H-6K) is still in operation.
The design of the Tu-16
By linking the Tu-16 plane - monoplane, which has swept mid-wing. The structure of the power plant consists of two engines AM-3, 8750 general thrust kg. Since 1958 of installed aircraft engines RD-3M with traction 9520 kg, which were placed in nacelles on the sides of the fuselage.
The fuselage of the Tu-16 has a cigar-shaped with a circular section at the bow and an oval - towards the stern. It is technically divided into 6 compartments and includes a flashlight, the front pressurized cabin, center section, weapons bay, rear technical compartment and the pressurized cabin.
Wing aircraft caisson type, two-spar, in the area of engines placed power race.
The design used aluminum alloys in-95, AK-6, AK-8, glass fiber and magnesium alloys. Boarding an airplane and stekateli gases are made of stainless steel.
The structure of the fuel system include tanks 10 groups, the total capacity of which - 43 800 liters of fuel. As a start-up fuel in the turbine starter motors used gasoline B-70. Fuel pumps of centrifugal type. The system is equipped with automatic flow and capacitive fuel gauge. there was no centralized filling system. Each of the tanks refueled 27 separately using the dispensing nozzle.
The aircraft is equipped bezbusterny classic control system, dual mechanical wiring. roll control performed by the ailerons, pitch - elevator, course - rudder. The design neperestavnoy stabilizer used. Removal of downloads performed by trimmers from the back-up rope and electric wiring. The control wiring included steering electric cars. Odnoschelevye flaps are also equipped with an electric drive.
The aircraft used tricycle landing gear structure having a bow rack and a pair of wheels. Retracting the front desk made a niche front legs, the main landing - in a gondola chassis.
Drum brake chamber actuated hydraulic elements are driven by the control pedals and antiyuzovuyu automation. To avoid damage to the bow aft additional support is available during the rough landing. Reduction of mileage on the landing of Tu-16 carried out by PT-16 parachute braking system, which has two brake parachute. The parachute container is fixed under the aft fuselage. Release the brake parachutes executed pyrotechnical PP-3. For the production and cleaning of the landing gear hydraulic system responds.
The structure of the aircraft includes two hydraulic systems that operate on the hydraulic oil AMG-10 and equipped with electrically-pumping stations. One of the systems - the main, the second - a duplicate. Its mission - to drive this cargo door flaps, landing gear, brakes, beam fuselage holder. Also, due to the hydraulic actuator is carried out the cockpit windshield wipers and turn the front wheels are controlled by a pilot workplace WHEEL.
|Wing area, m2||164.65|
|engine's type||2 TRD RD-3M|
|Thrust, kgf||X 2 9500|
|Speed, km / h|
|Ferry range, km||7200|
|Flight distance, km||5925|
|Combat range, km||3150|
|Practical ceiling, m||12300|
|Armament:||seven 23-23 mm AM-gun (three twin tower installations with remote control and one fixed gun in the bow).|
|The combat load - 9000 kg weapons bay|
|Bombs to FAB-9000|
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