Tu-155 - Experimental modification of the Tu-154, which laid the basis for verification of device performance on engines that use cryogenic fuel. The first flight in 1988 year. Total built about 100 copies, of which 5 working on liquid hydrogen.
In connection with the energy crisis matured 70-ies of the aviation industry had to consider alternative fuel types and their possible applications in aircraft.
The USSR Academy of Sciences, together with experts and scientists of different institutions launched a program for the introduction of hydrogen fuel as a power base in the different sectors of the economy. In the aviation industry, the topic was called "cold."
On MMZ "experience" we started to build a flying laboratory that would be consumed as fuel liquid hydrogen. The basic model for this task was the Tu-154B. The program also helped to improve the environmental situation. For the development of a flying laboratory was required to spend a huge amount of research and validation work. Deficiency of petrol and kerosene fuel market demanded his replacement with natural gas. In aviation, it is acceptable only in a liquefied state (LNG).
The engines on liquid hydrogen have tremendous growth potential. The fuel in the tanks had -253 ° C constant temperature. Since 1989, the steel used engines running on CNG (-162 ° C temperature).
The advantage of LNG consumption in aviation is not only an environmental cleanliness, but also the economy. When oil prices increase the cost of reduced natural gas does not increase. The calorific value of the fuel type to 15% higher than the carbon analogues (gasoline and kerosene).
Cryogenic aviation complex allowed to conduct research with a large number of cryogenic fuel. Flying laboratory Tu-155 done by tampering with the Tu-154 (85035 tail number).
The first flight of the Tu-155 15.04.1988 occurred. Supervised car that day's test pilot V. Sevanakaev. a series of tests was carried out, the result of which was not only a confirmation of the effectiveness of the use of alternative fuels, but also 14 aviation world records. Tu-155 successfully held long international flights "Moscow - Bratislava - Nice" and "Moscow - Hanover".
Distinctive design features
In connection with the restructuring of the aircraft on the possibility of using cryogenic fuel in the following adjustments made design:
In an aircraft fuel tank placed compartments having insulation for localizing highly liquid hydrogen or LNG.
Finalize the aircraft fuel system. Fuel Complex had in locating units supplying fuel to the engine, the pressure stabilization system inside the tank with a safety alert device, system pressurization tank and circulation of the accidental discharge of fuel. The fuel supply system includes a jet centrifugal pumps, insulated piping, cryogenic valves and devices.
The aircraft have provided the three additional systems:
Helium - responsible for managing the devices of the power plant;
Nitric - replaces the normal atmosphere in the compartments of the aircraft and the crew warned of the leakage of the cryogenic fuel;
system responsible for the lack of air in the heat-insulating cavities.
Experimental regular engine NK-88 development ND designer Kuznetsova.
To carry out the experimental work and maintenance of cryogenic aviation complex was developed. It consists of the following systems:
filling cryogenic fuel;
irrigation sprinkler system with water;
check the quality of fuel consumed.
Technical ideas and solutions that have been applied in the creation of the Tu-155, made an enormous contribution to Soviet science. The country has received the most important experience of designing systems operating at cryogenic fuel, which at that time was called the future of technology. Develop new methods of research, an experimental base of aircraft that consume fuel as reduced natural gas or hydrogen. Especially for this type of fuel designed fire protection systems.
On the basis of the Tu-155 was then built many models of airliners and cargo planes carrying the cryogenic propulsion. Focus on the introduction of alternative fuel in aviation since the early 90-ies acquired an international character. In 90-ies built a powerful system of cooperative enterprises, which makes cryogenic propulsion systems for various industries and transport.
|Aircraft Length m||47.90|
|Wing area, m2||202.00|
|engine's type||NC 2 2-8-2 + 1-88 NC|
|Thrust, kgf||X 3 10500|
|Cruising speed, km / h||850|
|Practical range, km||2800|
|The duration of the flight to the cryogenic fuel, h.||2|
|Practical ceiling, m||11900|
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