Tu-14, which is the codification of NATO called "boatswain" - Soviet jet torpedo bomber.
Work on the design of the Tu-14 (original name - the "project 73») began in January 1947 at OKB. Tupolev. He became the first aircraft in the world, available in two basic arrangement TRD "Ning-1» and subsidiary "Derwent-V». Equipped with imported engines, which produces the British company "Rolls-Royce". Some time later they were replaced by Soviet counterparts - motors RD and RD-45-500. The first modification that went into serial production, it was equipped with domestic engines.
On state tests of the plane did not show a sufficiently high level, and OKB. Tupolev began to refine and upgrade projects. It was decided to lift with the construction of the third auxiliary engines and equipment in its place another pressurized cabin. Also in the course of modernization of the engines replaced with new VC-1 design EDO V. Klimov. The new machine had to test to 1951 years, state tests were successful, and the plane put on combat duty in the ranks of the Soviet Air Force.
Interesting was the fact that the creation of the Tu-14 conducted in fierce competition with OKB. Ilyushin. Last on its own initiative designed bomber Il-28Which according to some characteristics superior Tupolev machine. As a result, both aircraft were put into service. However, from the "land" aircraft received orders mainly on IL-28. Tu-14 only fly the flag of the Navy as a base torpedo and reconnaissance. In the history of production at the plant № 39 89 was manufactured serial Tu-14. Operation conducted them until 1957, the further they were transferred to the reserve.
The design of the Tu-14
The fuselage of the Tu-14 made of semi-monocoque type, divided into 6 compartments, two were pressurized cabin, air supply which comes from the engine compressors. In the middle part of the fuselage, which was unsealed, were rubber fuel tanks 8, 6 of them were self-sealing. Bomb bay was in a position between the 14 and 30 shpaungotov numbers. It was equipped with a hydraulic drive with side flaps. Before the bomb bay made a special cut-out where to put an antenna on-board radar and its walls polystyrene fairing.
The second pressurized compartment at the bottom of the hatch had. In this area, it was taken by radio and electrical equipment. From under the hatch out brake flap. On the starboard side of the aircraft placed container boat LAS 3M, was given to the lower part of the door and drag chute container.
Access to the cabin radio operator was carried out through the bottom hatch, the bailout was made through him, too. In the event of an emergency landing on the left hand side of the cabin provided an escape hatch. Rear fuselage defended gun HP-23.
Wing dvuhlonzheronnoe, trapezoidal, had a box-like structure. It consisted of the center section and two detachable parts. Wing stationed 14 soft fuel tanks. Also, it consisted of landing flaps, which were issued and retracted under the influence of the hydraulic system. On the right aileron trim was set.
After harvesting the third engine in the base of the keel remade forkil, and this decision has led experts in a light shock, because from a functional point of view, it was pointless and useless. Furthermore, such a move even complicated device off in strong crosswind, and in flight gave excessive directional stability.
Steering Tu-14 has been a part of the weight and aerodynamic compensation and trimmers. Socks stabilizer and fin were equipped with anti-icing electrical systems, which have been a constant feature of the keel and the alternate heating - consoles stabilizer. Since warm-tail took about half of the on-board power, then turn it on, it was recommended only when the two aviageneratorov.
The structure of the chassis includes front wheel and retractable tail wheel safety. Basic and front strut retracted back during the flight.
Reduced run during landing provided a brake parachute belt. Reducing the takeoff run was achieved by four propellant boosters AKP-1500-15. They are attached under the center and operate alternately. Start accelerators - the task of the pilot, and reset - navigator. The emergency relief accelerators could also lay down on the shoulders of the pilot.
The plane had a tough Single control. The original style was made the transition from the rods in pressurized compartments leaking. Trimmers controlled by electromechanical remotely. Management rudders and ailerons included Autopilot equipment AP-5.
The fuel is placed in 24 rubber-sealing tanks, total capacity of which amounted to 10 300 l. The composition of the fuel system is radically different from its predecessors. The fact is that the TU-14 has thin wing, in which it was impossible to install tanks of conventional design. Fuel transfer system has been improved to provide the desired alignment. Development of fuel is switched to the automatic mode for different groups of tanks. Prior to that, this process led the crew of the aircraft.
The main feature was the series connection of the hydraulic operating consoles (exercising control units chassis, brake and landing flaps, bomb bay) with a source of pressure. The setting was a risky move, and trouble not long in coming. If time did not work the remote control returns brake flaps could damage the seals of pumps, and the slurry is thrown out. To remedy the problem involved emergency accumulators.
If the control panel is premature to transfer gear in neutral, could open locks and front pillars emerge during the run. On the instrument panel in the cockpit were the indicators in the form of green lights that signaled the released state of the chassis.
|Wing area, m2||67.36|
|engine's type||BK TRD 2-1|
|Thrust, kgf||2 x 2700|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||800|
|Practical range, km||2930|
|Combat range, km||1200|
|Practical ceiling, m||11300|
|Armament:||HP's 4-23 - two guns still in the nose of the fuselage under the front cabin (2 85's shells) and dual gun aft installation KDU-81 (2 350's shells)|
|Bomb load - 1000-3000 kg.|
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