Tu-128, which NATO Codification called "Fiddler" - Double loitering Soviet interceptor having a long-range.
Starting from the middle of 50-ies of the Soviet air defense interceptors in need of further action that could provide a comprehensive defense of the USSR borders. With this purpose in the Bureau named. Tupolev began to carry out work on the design of the new aircraft Tu-128. Externally it had similarities with the bomber Tu-22, could carry aboard a powerful radar and missiles "air-to-air." Interceptor was constructed on the basis of Tu-102, which was first raised to the sky in 1959, the name of the serial Tu-102, which he received in the city of 1963 - Tu-28P. Next a deep modernization of the aircraft received index Tu-128.
On interceptor Tu-128 many technical ideas of the Tu-98, in particular low-positioned wide swept wing were sold, placing the chassis rods in the wings and nacelles low-lying stabilizer.
The structure of the power plant was part of a pair of turbojet engines AL-7F-2, which are placed inside the fuselage. In contrast to the basic Tu-22, the new interceptor was not equipped with an internal weapons bay. Armament was recorded on the pylons of the wings and the fuselage was used as a huge fuel tanks. A prototype of the Tu-28P design had the crew cabin that can accommodate two people, who sat alone for a second.
Tu-102 was carrying a huge built-in radar, but also the test equipment is in the bottom bulge. The Tu-28P made larger nose cone to control missile weapons, are involved through the heat radar "Smerch-100» system. It has a range of target detection 50 km radius capture - within 40 km. Thanks to the good purposes of detection and capture performance interceptor did not have contact with the ground radar, he could independently make interceptions.
In the case of autonomous action required only a few data on the location of air targets. Therefore, it can be effectively used in remote areas for the ground radar. During operation, it is often used together with the aviation AWACS Tu-126. The aircraft was virtually no defensive weapons, electronic warfare systems, the system notifies of radar illumination, which were equipped with smaller interceptors Sukhoi design.
Tu-128 was the interceptor, which had a heavy load on the wing, simple operation and a bad review, high weight and modest figure maneuverability. The mission was part of the aircraft to intercept NATO's strategic bombers, for example, B-52, rather than keeping the fight with smaller and more maneuverable enemy aircraft.
Complex communication and navigation equipment, which was used on the Tu-128, was the same as that of the long-range bombers. This enabled loitering interceptor in the harsh climatic conditions of the Far East and the Far North. The effective work of AL-7F-2 in various flight modes provide air intakes with movable bodies dvuhsachkovymi-cones. Advanced runways quality Tu-128 at that time were based on the activation of pull-slotted flaps and during the landing, except them, used as a brake parachute and spoilers.
The armament includes four aircraft missiles "air-to-air" F-4 / 80-K, developed by KB Bisnovatyi. Typically, these were two missiles R-4R with semi-active radar guidance and fixed on the outer pylons and two P-4T that were placed on the inner pylons and had infrared guidance. Armament aircraft upgraded in 60-ies, it was equipped with missiles R-4TM and P-4RM.
The military use of the Tu-128 provides several options. One of these involves the identification of goals, and aiming interceptor performed with the involvement of ground stations and AWACS planes Tu-126. Interacting with this complex, aboard the Tu-128 could work in the semi-autonomous mode. From spy operator-navigator received rate and the composition of the goal, further search was carried out on their own interceptor.
12.12.1963 in the Ministry of Defence of the USSR title aviation complex missile interception was fixed, which included were:
missiles "air-to-air" P and P-4T 4R;
Radar RP-C "Smerch".
Serial production of the Tu-128 1970 lasted up to a year. Total released 188 interceptors. In 1971 10 was created machines for pilot training, four of which have been converted from fighters. This version was the naming of the Tu-128UT. Its construction on the site of the radar there is an additional front cabin. Further projects Tupolev Tu desk with the names and Tu-138-148 not received further development.
The crew of the Tu-128
For this class of aircraft best suited crew, including two people. Duties of crew composition:
The pilot was responsible for piloting the aircraft, the implementation of route guidance based on the command board RP-S radar, and the implementation of a missile launch.
Navigator is the operator responsible for samoletovozhdenie throughout the flight, looking for air targets with the help of on-board radar, perform their recognition, capture, and was on the radio with the base airfield.
Before the advent of the Tu-128 fighters rarely taken on board in the crew navigator-operator. But this model has shown a high level of efficiency of teamwork. Part of the navigation work fell on the shoulders of a specialist, while the pilot can focus on the main tasks: to intercept and defeat the purpose. Especially effective was the work of destruction after honing technology of aircraft in the forward hemisphere. Thus, it was possible to make sighting contact, lying at altitudes 3,5-4 km below the target that was safer than firing at the same level.
|Aircraft Length m||30.06|
|Wing area, m2||96.94|
|Internal fuel, kg||1300|
|Engines||2 TRD Saturn (Cradle) AL-7F2|
|Thrust, kgf||X 2 10100|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|Practical flight range, km||2565|
|Practical ceiling, m||15600|
|Armament:||2 SD air-to-air R-4RM and 2 P 4TM|
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