Tupolev Tu-126 "Moss"
Tu-126, which NATO Codification called "Moss" - an aircraft that was designed for radar surveillance and identification of marine and air targets. "Liana" equipped with the radar system.
The most dangerous for the Soviet Union in 1950, the policy were American bombers carrying nuclear weapons. Since the most likely area breakthrough was the northern route and construction of ground-based radars require large investments, on one of the agreed on the construction of the aviation radar detection of early government meetings. 4.07.1957 issued a decree USSR № 608-293, in which the task of the construction of the complex was entrusted to CB A. Tupolev.
Initially we planned to build a complex on the basis of the Tu-95. Through 2 years after the beginning of research on the idea of a strategic bomber had to be abandoned. He found a better replacement. The most suitable to accommodate a huge number of radio became a passenger plane Tu-114. That is its construction took as a basis for design Tu-126. According to the decree of the USSR number 567-230 from 30.05.1960 aircraft designer was assigned Bureau named. Tupolev, the developer of the radio "Liana" - NII-17, and the manufacturer - the Kuibyshev Aviation Plant № 18. Manage project work directly to the factory happened designer AI Putilov, who led them to a branch of KB. Tupolev in Kuibyshev.
Fully been redesigned passenger cabin of the aircraft Tu-114. The front and middle parts of it were jobs with remote controls for radio engineering crew, took the back of the radar units, communications and electronic intelligence. Above the fuselage of the aircraft, in the back part, mushroom radar antenna was installed on the pylon fairing in "Liana". Fairing during flight with the antenna rotated at a speed of about 10 / min.
In the forward fuselage fuel consumer placed the bar for aerial refueling of the type "hose-cone". Bottom cabin occupied air intake, providing the cooling system of radio. Underneath the rear fuselage to improve directional stability keel installed.
By plane lacked defensive armament, in some instances in the stern of the aircraft radar equipment.
The crew of the Tu-scout 126 were two shifts of 12 people. The flight crew - two pilots, two navigators, radio operator and flight engineer. Radio Engineering crew - commander, engineer and four operators. Since the normal flight for this machine lasted longer period of time, it had to be periodically replaced. destinations crew were provided on the plane.
The flight duration Tu-126 11 hours was about, and range - about 7000 km. In the future, it planned to increase these figures by the introduction of the design of refueling in the air system of the type "hose-cone".
At the stage of conceptual design on the plane was going to strengthen the aft cannon controlled installation, which included two guns AM-caliber 23 23 mm and sighting radar "Krypton". However, having considered all the options for such a project, the idea of using defensive weapons designers refused. The tail of the fuselage compartment equipment was given to the REB.
a special air intake, which is placed under the fuselage was designed to cool the radio. To improve directional stability, it was an additional ridge, which was under the aft fuselage. Equipment Scout reveals enemy air targets at a distance 150-350 km, surface targets - up to 400 km, capture radar radiation at a distance of up to 500-600 km, to transmit the collected data the command headquarters of the Navy and Air Defense in the distance up to 2000 km. The aircraft can be used for sighting aiming interceptor, including long-128S Tu-4.
Production and operationTu-126
The first Tu-126 1961 was made in the year. The tests were completed in the autumn of the year 1964. A year later, the scout was made by the Air Force of the USSR. Serial production of the Tu-126 1968 was continued until Total issued 9 devices, and they all came at the disposal of private 67-AWACS Squadron, which was stationed in Siauliai. In the summer, two aircraft from that base to the airfield tossed Olenegorsk. From his Tu-126 could make flights at a distance on the New Earth, in contrast to the Yak-28P who constantly based there.
A distinctive feature of the scout was a small probability of its defeat during the execution of combat missions. It was impossible to destroy the missiles, which have a passive radar guidance system. Missiles such as "surface-to-air" and "air-to-air" had weak efficacy against Tu-126, since it is much earlier with the help of powerful radars and radio reconnaissance equipment showed the enemy, could provide maneuver and failure to make the capture special purpose equipment.
Run the Tu-126 continued until 1980-ies, before joining the ranks of combat aircraft A-50. This intelligence complex was constructed in one of the converted Tu-126.
Tupolev Tu-126 characteristics:
|Aircraft Length m||55.20|
|Wing area, m2||311.50|
|engine's type||4 theater KKBM (Kuznetsov) NK 12VM|
|power, kWt||X 4 11035|
|Maximum speed km / h||850|
|Cruising speed, km / h||650|
|Practical range, km||12550|
|The duration of the flight, ch.min||25.0|
|Practical ceiling, m||11000-13000|
|Crew||4-5 (plus 7-8 man AWACS operators)|
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