Tupolev Tu-124 "Pan"
Tu-124, which is the codification of NATO was called "Pan" - Soviet passenger aircraft designed for the airlines of small extent, with passsazhirovmestimostyu 56 people.
T-124 - this is a small copy of the airliner Tu-104. Both planes are similar in appearance but differ in size and design features of some units. Liner finished a transitional stage between the passenger aircraft of the first and second generations. His designs were first used bypass turbojet engines that are different from conventional turbojet increased fuel economy.
The plans of its creation was the replacement on local airlines obsolete devices Li-2 and IL-14. Tu-124 had to go to the routes connecting the capital with other cities of the USSR, which was the distance to be overcome for one hour. Smaller aircraft size compared with the Tu-104 demanded smaller booster distance. If the "big brother" band required acceleration 2500-3000 m, the Tu-124 2000 limited strip length m.
History and productionTu-124
24.03.1960 under the direction of a test pilot AD Kalina was held on the first flight airliner Tu-124 (tail number - 45 000). State tests were conducted under the leadership of the Air Force, as provided for the use of military aircraft. During state testing machine testing a military test pilot AK Starikov.
Serial production of the Tu-124 was established in Kharkiv at the aircraft factory number 135. The first production aircraft was handed over for operation under the military air defense needs.
operational restrictions have been adopted for Tu-124. It was impossible to overclock up to 0,78 the speed of sound, only in case of emergency lowering tolerated flight with M = 0,86. Ceiling - 11 200 m.
Knowing the weaknesses of the Tu-104, its reduced copy checked able to spin. Surprisingly, the car retained the effectiveness of controls, and there is no closer to the speed limit. Yet another disadvantage found. At altitudes of about 11 km due to the high turbulence of the aircraft began to shake violently and pass the buck to the wing. Therefore, a method to produce steel liner removal of unsafe mode.
Based on the words of test pilots Tu-124 had a greater margin of transverse and longitudinal stability than the Tu-104. Centering of the aircraft could be changed on 21-30% level mean aerodynamic chord.
Since October 1963, began air passengers. First it was launched flight Moscow - Tallinn, then - in Ulyanovsk, then - in Vilnius. For three years the Kharkov aircraft factory number 135 35 released new Tu-124.
Since April 1964-th liner output for international flights, and it gradually replaced the obsolete and outdated Il-14.
The first production Tu-124 had an elongated nose, which is limited to a review at the time of planting the device. In the third series car nose reduced to 500 mm and tilted slightly downward. The weight of the first production Tu-124 300 appeared on the calculated kg more because of heavy insulation. Also 16 first copies had a low margin of safety of the wing, because of which was reduced dynamic pressure limit value. By repairing these aircraft were placed reinforced console.
Total mass production was built Tu 165-124 different modifications. Most of them operated in the "Aeroflot". The rest were sent to the Soviet Air Force, or sold abroad. And the ranks of the military mission were not only educational modifications and passenger Tu-124. In the second half 70-s resolution of the CPSU Central Committee was chosen as a strategy to upgrade the Soviet air fleet. At the time the Tu-124 was in retirement, so gradually began to be written off from the accounts of the Air Force and the "Aeroflot". Known only one crash involving this aircraft, which occurred 23.12.1973. The last Tu-124 were decommissioned in the early 80-ies.
The ship was no auxiliary power unit that provides air conditioning in the cockpit sealed on earth. This caused discomfort to the passengers who were seated in the cabin and waited for departure. In more recent aircraft APU installed.
On Tu-124 it was impossible to perform centralized refueling. Fuel poured into separate tanks, it inhibited the process of re-flight of the liner after refueling.
The aircraft was only 2 emergency exits. One escape hatch located in the upper part of the fuselage, the second - in the cargo hold.
The entrance doors were located on the left side. The front door serves as the entrance for passengers under the back trap sum was not possible. It was official, used with a ladder.
Wing Tu-124 structurally different from the Tu-104, at least outwardly, and was similar to him. In its structure were airbrakes which changed the angle of his position to 52 degree. after touching the wheels of the chassis of the runway surface.
Control of the aircraft was similar to the Tu-104. From the helm was hard wiring to the ailerons and rudders. Management System added autopilot AP-6E. Issue landing flaps and flaps had electro-mechanical control, spoilers - hydraulic.
Chassis liner was designed to operate even on unpaved runways. The rear fuselage Place the container with brake parachute, after the disclosure of which area was 40 square. m.
The structure of the life support system included air conditioning, oxygen equipment for crew and passengers. Also on board were present, portable oxygen life support systems in the event of cabin depressurization.
As part of the design elements of the present anti-icing system. In particular, these include front-icing electrothermal device that provides front keel and stabilizer. Molecular succumbed to heating windshields of the pilots and navigator. "Janitors" Also on the glass cockpit canopy wiper worked like a car.
If refused one of the engines on the Tu-124 could continue to fly at altitudes of up to 5000 m.
|Aircraft Length m||30.58|
|Wing area, m2||119.37|
|engine's type||2 turbofan Soloviev D-20P|
|Thrust, kgf||X 2 5400|
|Maximum speed km / h||970|
|Cruising speed, km / h||780|
|Practical range, km||2100|
|Practical ceiling, m||11700|
|Payload:||44-56 5000 kg passengers or commercial cargo|
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