The aircraft Tu-114 is a long-range machine, which is made for the carriage of passengers and equipped with turboprop engines. It was designed in the middle of 50-ies in the Tupolev Design Bureau on the basis of already established bomber Tu-95. This unit is manufactured for four years at an aircraft factory in the city of Kuibyshev. During all this time it was created 31 aircraft of this class.
History of the Tu-114
Designers became clear that the future of jet engines and jet aircraft. Despite this, the heads of state in the early 50-ies decided to create a high-speed passenger unit with turbofan powerplant. Tupolev Bureau has begun to develop a new aircraft at the beginning of 1955 years after the relevant decision.
Chief Designer to create Tu-114 was NI Bazenkov. When project work new product codes Bureau designated as the plane Tu-114 or 95P. Development of the project took place fairly quickly, so the new aircraft was ready in 1,5 years, and its first flight vehicle made late autumn 57 years.
In the manufacture of the device Tu-114 he had no equal in the world in the number of passengers that can accommodate on board, and before 70-ies Tu-114 was the most tremendous passenger car. Due to the fact that the plane was nizkoplanom, designers equipped it high enough gear, which was not in any of the aircraft of this class. The system chassis has also brought disadvantages plane.
Design features Tu-114
The plane is made as a nizkoplan equipped with swept wings, which are four engine. The power plant unit consists of a turbofan engine type NON-12MV. Each is equipped with coaxial screws that rotate against each other. All powerplant produces machines 60 thousand horsepower at takeoff, and the aircraft remains quite economical and uses about 5,6 tons of fuel during the first hour of the flight.
With regard to the fuselage, the Tu-114 he double-deck and connected by a staircase. The upper deck is a passenger compartment where the passenger seat installed, and on the lower deck there are two cargo compartment and a kitchen. The lower deck is also a relaxation room crew.
Passenger compartment consisted of three separate saloons of various classes and, accordingly, each of which could accommodate different number of passengers. Thus, in the first cabin was 41 passenger seat, the second - 48, were in the third compartment, which is located in 48 people with beds. Between the second and third passenger cabin was located buffet. The aircraft was equipped with two toilets (male and female).
Like other aircraft, Tu-114 had its drawbacks, namely:
because of the high chassis for aircraft maintenance needed a sufficiently high ladder that did not use any one aircraft at a time;
screws and machine engines create very large vibration and noise, which brought discomfort to passengers;
the fuel system is also ideal, because the fuel tanks, which were placed in the wings, had a soft texture;
In addition, when filling the fuel tanks rise was sufficiently dangerous, especially when working only one engine.
Records of the Tu-114
With the help of this machine was installed as much as 32 world record. These achievements have been made for items:
the largest at the time turbofan aircraft, which was carrying passengers;
the fastest passenger ship in the world with this type of engine;
the only passenger car that had swept wings;
It equipped with the most powerful theater, which has been installed on one machine.
Operation of the Tu-114
The first flight was made in 1958 year to New York City. A year later was made a non-commercial flight to Khabarovsk and back to Moscow with passengers on board. In 59 year this machine was carrying Khrushchev to Washington and back. As for regular commercial flights, the Tu-114 flew to Havana from July 62 years. But this flight the plane was forced to refuel in Guinea, where the airport was built by our specialists. Flying through Guinea was soon stopped because of pressure from the United States.
For posts with Japan the aircraft was slightly remodeled, namely the changes affected the passenger compartment. It was divided into two classes: economy first. Thus in this liner could accommodate 105 passengers. The first flight in the direction of Japan has been carried out in the spring of 67 years. It should be noted that the crew of the machine consisting of both domestic staff and from the Japanese. Also, this machine flew to India, Canada, and countries in Africa.
Besides international flights, Tu-114 actively used for internal transport from Moscow to Khabarovsk, Tashkent, Novosibirsk and Alma-Ata.
The aircraft used for the flight to 1976 years, by which time they have practically exhausted all their operational stocks. There were also breakage, which could be eliminated, but the main problem was that the car is already outdated. After the cancellation in 1977 was cut into scrap metal machine Tu 21-114.
Currently in the world there is not one working Tu-114, there are only three non-flying unit in this series. All three machines are used as museum exhibits.
For all the long time use was lost only two cars. The first accident occurred during take-off. At the same time the plane snagged their gear snowy parapet, then hit his nose on the runway. If the accident was more 20 victims, but some people still survive. The second accident occurred due to mechanical error, which was composed after the nose landing gear and the aircraft has received a lot of damage.
Tupolev Tu-114 characteristics:
|Aircraft Length m||54.10|
|Wing area, m2||311.1|
|engine's type||4 theater Kuznetsov NK-12M|
|Power, hp||X 4 14795|
|Maximum speed km / h||894|
|Cruising speed, km / h||770|
|Ferry range, km||8800|
|Practical range, km||7000|
|Practical ceiling, m||12000|
|Payload:||120-170 30000 passengers or cargo kg|
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation