After creating a jet Tu-16 far, which is a bomber-missile, Tupolev given the task to build a jet airliner Tu-104 (1953 year). Engineers from design bureau did not spend time on the design of a new fuselage, and it just started to create on the basis of already executed bomber. Already in 1954, the preliminary draft was established, and in June the Council of Ministers sent a resolution to the country's Bureau for engineering of the first in the history of Soviet passenger jet Tu-104. For him the project was planned to install two engine production CB Mikulina - AM 3M-500. For technical data of the aircraft must have at least 50 passenger seats, the cargo - 1250 kg, the maximum flight speed - up to 1000 km / h, and the flight distance of not less than 3500 km.
From a military prototype borrowed from the new project, not all layouts. In particular cabin crew have been copied, engine nacelles, landing gear and tail unit, wing and flight control and navigation equipment without military lotions. Entirely newly created fuselage (became more spacious due to pereukomplektovaniem) and air intake engines. In designing KB thrown the best professionals, the pace was very fast robots. With this in December 54, the state commission approved layout. The following year, in March, on the haz (Kharkiv Aviation Plant) built the first prototype. From June to 17 12 October conducted production tests, after which immediately switched to the state.
1956 year was very significant for the Tu-104. In May, he enrolled at the disposal of civil aviation and the aircraft first took to the sky as the shuttle in September 15. 1-th flight - Moscow - Omsk - Irkutsk. The period of time spent on the plane from the creation to the first flight of the trip, was 3 years. This fast paced asked not only because of the need for such a unit, but also due to held the "cold war."
Tu-104 in length was less than forty meters in height -. Less than 12 m Wingspan was greater than that of a jet bomber - 34,5 m, cruising speed - 800 km / h and range exceeds 2700 km. The maximum ceiling is reached 12 thousand meters. The aircraft is unique: if the empty weight is 41 600 kg, the maximum loading of the presence of a full tank, filled with passenger seats and luggage compartment full - 76 000 kg.
There were also negative aspects. Comfort for the passengers flight was not the best. At high altitude (10 000 m) pressure equal to 0,45 atm. Therefore sealed partition between the cabin and the cockpit was installed for the safety of the passengers themselves. Also we used individual oxygen supply apparatus. After additional testing engineers and temporary committee identified and bigger problems. For example, when loading the aircraft by weight more than 71 500 kg, he could not fly further in the event of failure of one engine.
Air unit was rather critical with respect to the longitudinal stability of a wide range of flight speeds and altitudes. Some modes of flight carried a negative impact on piloting, which naturally reduces the level of tactical and technical indications given by the Air Force. And at an altitude of up to 10 000 11 000 m, regardless of the medium or fast speed of flight, control was very sensitive and has led to the enormous complexity of piloting.
A considerable number of disasters and emergency situations has led to some limitation with a maximum ceiling of 10 000 m. We spent some changes to the design. In particular, reduced stabilizer installation angle that affect the expansion of the deflection range. Bombing attitude indicator was replaced by one that is used in fighter aircraft, it is more sensitive and gentle. Additional repair operation was to eliminate the problems related to the arbitrary loss landing gear, which was performed at high accelerations. After many apgreytov dovodok and aircraft has increased the duration of its use. In the history of Tu was released 29-104, after which time the modifications come.
This air machine, since 1956 years, has become a major "Aeroflot" mainline aircraft. The main route was: Moscow - Tashkent Moscow - Khabarovsk, Moscow - Tbilisi. In September, after a year of Tu-104 made its first flight to New York.
In 1957 year was planned Tu-104A on 70 seats. His trial ended in November. Aircraft dimensions have not changed, but the old power plant was replaced by a more powerful RD-3M. Changed fuel tank. If the base model it is mounted in the rear of the plane, in a modified version of its console installed in the wings. We replaced some navigation elements. For a more comfortable trip installed automatic temperature control in the passenger compartment.
Less than a year later appeared 40 100-meter-seat Tu-104B. A huge contrast to the previous model is the presence of food in the front cabin. It should also be noted that the increased take-off weight influenced the replacement of engines and the installation of a larger area of the flaps. The new engine RD-3M-500 the presence of different afterburner mode for 6 minutes he could develop traction until 10 500 kg.
As a result of the success of large aircraft machine series for the aircraft has been increased to 95 Tu-104B. From enhancing modifications, the engineers at each of them spent on the year. But Tu-104B did not last in this family. After it went all new versions of the main jet aircraft. The next plane was not successful. Tu-104V planned as a more economical version of the base model, but it was very unstable in air. The project was closed.
The following modifications were 104G Tu-Tu-104D. They are designed on the basis of the first Tu-Tu-104A 104B, and they were intended for high officials and senior party representatives. This results in high comfort aircraft. Next Tu-104E the built in different RD-3P with increased take-off thrust and installation of additional fuel tanks-caisson. The aircraft was able to fly to a distance 3800 km without refueling. It reduces the length of the takeoff roll and landing run. Have released only 2 instance, since the start of mass conversion of aircraft factories across the country for new types of aircraft. There was also a model of the military mission - Tu-107. This military-transport version of leaking the passenger compartment. It was planned to transport equipment and implement the Airborne troops landing, but because of two flaws only one instance was built (too high landing speeds and a possible lack in combat conditions necessary good airports). The project was closed.
- Tu-110 has uprated flight safety;
- Tu-144 was used as a training unit and astronauts to perform sanitary and transportation problems.
|Aircraft Length m||38.85|
|Wing area, m2||174.40|
|engine's type||2 turbojet engine Mikulin AM-3|
|Thrust, kgf||X 2 8750|
|Maximum speed km / h||950|
|Cruising speed, km / h||850|
|Practical range, km||2750|
|Practical ceiling, m||11500|
|Payload:||before passengers or 50 5200 kg of cargo|
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