Tupolev TB-4. Photo. Story. Characteristics.
In 30-ies after the establishment of TB-3, bomber, the Soviet Union announced the world its powerful military air force. At the beginning of the year 1929 UWS applied for TsAGI to create heavy bomber TB-4, or factory documentation ANT-16. After a year in the UWS approved requirements for the aircraft. According to him means that the machine had to have a maximum load 18 000 kg, combat - 10 000 kg range - 2000 km, the speed at nominal conditions - 200 km / h, the ceiling - 5000 m, landing speed - 100 km / h, running with brake - 100 m without brakes - 300 m run - 250 m.
In 1930 year in April, the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR said operating plan for TB-4, in May, work began on the schematic design. All activities and ever-changing requirements bombers struck up a project to 2 years. In December, there were the necessary 32 engines, and in February 33 year began exporting aircraft parts to the airfield. In April, the ANT-16 collected until July conducted a small installation and debugging. In July, it began flight tests.
The work is distributed in such a way: a guide to the whole project - Tupolev, designing the fuselage - Arkhangel'skii, wings - V. Petlyakov, feathers - Nekrasov, chassis - Petrov, powerplant - I. and E. Pogossky Pogossky, armament - I. Tolstoy.
After creating a sketch version problem with a choice of engines and their quantity. In January 31 years TsAGI conjunction with UWS decided the issue with defensive weapons and bombarding. Since the crew had to be 12 people to arm decided to include 2 artillery guns (20 mm) and PV plants on 5-1 (coaxial machine gun). By bombarding the armament carried new release gear and bomb racks. They provided for the installation of forty bombs 250 kg or twenty of 500 kg in the middle of the fuselage. On the outer side under the fuselage can place a bomb on the 1000 2000 or kg. In December came the new requirements related to the replacement of engines M-35 (4 pcs.) On M-34 (6 pcs.).
Fender TB-4 consists of two parts and the center-weaned. In the power set three spars. Bracing riveted, sheet metal. The fuselage is divided into the nose, tail and middle parts, the nose has been weaned from the toe. In contrast to the ANT-6, step wave corrugation more on 50 mm.
Among the design features of the fuselage bomb bay stands the presence of two total length 10 4 m and a width m. They are placed behind the center section of the wing. TB-4 - the world's first airplane, which was used as a large cargo bays for bombs.
The tail unit with the same type of TB-3. The stabilizer and fin connected to each other braces. Handlebars rotation and height have a horn compensation. Except for the ailerons control the airplane can be called tough.
Gear wheels mounted in pairs on a common axis. Their diameter - 2 m. The wheels are equipped with brakes and oil damping. Attached to the rear self-orienting pneumatic tire. At the wheel fairings can be installed (pants).
The power plant consists of six motors M-34 (capacity of 830 hp), four of which are located in the toe of the wing, and the other two are mounted in tandem installation on the frame above the fuselage. The fuel stored in tanks in 6 parts of the wing and center section in two parts. The total capacity of the fuel system is 8500 l and oil - 2000 l. Screws engines located in the wing have a diameter 3,18 m in tandem - 3,3 m pushing - 3 m.
For the first time on a plane of this class used with built-in power-driven power 16 hp
For the first time in the defense of the Soviet bomber aircraft cannon replied. That ANT-16 became the founder of the concept of "Flying Fortress". Gun set at two points at the fore and rear. The latter was located behind the wing. Location guns, one aft of the tail, yet in several of specialized wing towers in the front and rear parts of the wing (shooting forward - shooting ago).
Equipment. The sight OPB-2 used for night bombing, radio - to support communications with the central database, intercom. This plane is not just big, it's very difficult to maintain. Because of this, the crew of TB-4 12 people: 2 pilot, navigator, flight engineer, radio operator-finder and 7 shooters.
According to the conceptual design prototype TB-4 the presence 6 engines M-34 should have a flight weight - 31 000 kg empty weight - 10 700 kg, the speed of the earth - 208 km / h, the ceiling - 3400 m range - 1600 km, cruising speed - 160 km / h. Bomb load - 4000 kg, the maximum normalized - 10 000 kg. Armament - 2 20 mm cannon "Oerlikon" and 10 units guns YES.
First flew Gromov July 3 1933 years. He noted some load on the wheel and pedals. In September, the car was sent to the state tests. The general view was a positive picture, however, the management of TB-4 was extremely difficult for regime change.
In addition, the plane even after some improvements could not meet the requirements of the military. He showed a rather poor results. The maximum speed is reached at the ground - 200 km / h at an altitude of 2000 m - 187,5 km / h, the time taken to climb 2000 m - 33,32 min. Service ceiling dropped to 2750 m, while its achievements - 84 minutes. Takeoff run increased to 800 m, and the required run-up to 36.
The plane has been decided to finalize, but on the stand-ins. He had, according to the ideas of war, not only to meet the requirements laid down, but also to overcome them. According to the plans the following TB-4 had to build until April 1932 the year, and in May, was put to the test. Since this plane was supposed to become the standard series, TsAGI made a few changes.
In 1932 in December approved the layout of the aircraft, in August began construction. By the beginning of the year 1933 willingness bomber was 17%, and the second in July of the same year TSAGI suddenly received instructions to terminate the operation of the aircraft. In the future construction of a few modifications.
Tupolev TB-4 characteristics:
|Wing area, m2||422.0|
|engine's type||6-34 PD M|
|Power, hp||X 6 830|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||200|
|Practical range, km||2000|
|Combat range, km||1000|
|Rate of climb, m / min||81|
|Practical ceiling, m||2750|
|Armament:||Two 20-mm guns, and ten machine guns 7.62-mm|
|10000-11800 kg bombs|
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