The aircraft Sukhoi T-4. A photo. History. Characteristics.
It is believed that the fastest planes are fighters. However, 70-ies in the Soviet Union, heavy bomber, compete in the speed with which he could not no fighter in the world was built. It was a T-4, which was constructed in OKB. P. Sukhoi.
The history of the aircraft T-4
In the early 60-ies of the USSR reached strategic parity with its main competitor in the global confrontation - United States of America. This is due to the accelerated development of bombers and nuclear missile systems. The two sides did not stop and continued arms race.
United States improved their strategic arsenals and have achieved considerable success in this. We climbed into the sky prototypes strategic bomber XB-7 Valkirie and reconnaissance aircraft SR-71 Blackbird. Pentagon set about creating strategic bomber B-1, in the potential of the most advanced aircraft missile complex. One by one, were part of the US Navy nuclear submarines and powerful floating airfield, aircraft carriers. To ignore such a threat to the Soviet Union could not.
In 1963 year Soviet military set a task - to create a strategic reconnaissance aircraft shock-complex, which is in the range of up to 7 thousand kilometers could find and with the help of guided missiles to destroy any target. Priority among them were aircraft carrier groups of a potential enemy. Among the construction department announced a competition. The projects presented KB Pavel Sukhoi, Tupolev, Andrei and Alexander Yakovlev. The winner is the model T-4, the proposed dry.
It was a sudden decision, because Sukhoi specialized in light front-line fighters and interceptors, and here - the strategic missile weighing 100 tons. Trump card T-4 was the highest cruising speed - 3200 km / h (three speed of sound). It has promised to complete invulnerability of the machine when breaking through enemy air defenses.
Patriarch of the Soviet bomber aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev sharply objected to the transfer of the project Pavel Sukhoi. Unofficially, the aircraft T-4 called "weaving" because of the take-off weight of the machine. The development project led by Naum Chernyakov. He has already had experience of strategic intercontinental systems. In 50-ies he was the chief designer of "The Tempest" two-stage supersonic unmanned cruise missile. She could fly a distance of several thousand kilometers at a speed of 3500 km / h.
When you create a "Tempest" was first widely used titanium - a light metal that can withstand huge temperature. It has become indispensable in conditions of prolonged flight at supersonic speeds. The project was closed in the year 1960, but many studies for "The Tempest" (heat-resistant materials, processing technology) were used in the construction of the T-4.
Almost everything in the design of this machine was new and unknown. Therefore, the work on the aircraft allowed to raise to new heights, many branches of science and technology. T-4 became a kind of technical university, through which participants underwent its creation. In general, when you create a T-4 600 inventions were introduced. Neither aircraft was built at that time in the Soviet Union, did not have such a large number of original designs.
Together with Sukhoi to develop a "weave" actively working scientists of the Central hydrodynamic Institute. They participated in the development of aerodynamic configuration and a unique control system. The designers chose the layout for "duck" scheme, which is composed of canards. In order to reduce the drag of the nose we have decided to make a mobile. During takeoff and landing the pilot would have bowed her down, covered in flight, piloting aircraft only instrument. It was a very risky decision. However, it promised a big speed boost.
The body of the machine decided to make mixed - titanium and steel. The original aircraft require not less than the original engines, which are able to perform the normal operation in the most severe temperature conditions and rarefied air. Such power plants made in Rybinsk. Air intakes and four engine installed under the fuselage "weave" in one package. Wits immediately called a scheme of "communal bed." For the first time in domestic practice on the plane super reliable electric remote control system with quadruple redundancy was applied.
Flight testing of aircraft T-4
22.08.1972. Test pilot Vladimir Ilyushin, together with navigator NA Alferov took place in the cockpit of the first prototype T-4. At the airfield Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky together designers, engineers, scientists, representatives of the Air Force. The car took off easily and quickly gained height. "Weaving" was simple in piloting, had good stability and controllability.
The first forty-minute flight was successful and without any comments. "This aircraft twenty-first century", - said Vladimir Ilyushin after soft landing. According to the plan of the first phase of flight tests it took nine missile flight T-4. Their findings have led customers from the Ministry of Defence is literally in a state of euphoria. Kilometers per second - as fast-defense means to handle any adversary is unable today, in the twenty-first century.
Hundred-ton machine is operated as easily as an ordinary fighter. These flight characteristics completely coincide with the settlement. Chief of the Soviet Air Force, Air Chief Marshal Paul Kutakhov so appreciated the aircraft Sukhoi "It's a real Russian miracle".
In the first phase of tests ordered the military industry 250 machines. They had to build a factory in Kazan - the main production base of Tupolev. But 1974 year on the orders of the Ministry of Aviation Industry work on T-4 aircraft were suspended. General Designer Pavel Sukhoi was trying to figure out the reasons for such a decision from the Minister of Defense Marshal Grechko.
15.09.1975. General Designer died, and has not received a clear answer. Officially closed topic decree of the USSR Council of Ministers 19.12.1975. It indicates such cessation of work on the cause of "one-hundredths" - "in order to concentrate efforts and resources on the creation of Tu-160 as the main strategic multi-purpose aircraft."
On the basis of the T-4 70 in the early-ies it was created two more projects: a modernized submarine T-4M having a variable sweep wing, as well as T-4MS, so-called "dvuhsotki" - a strategic dual-mode attack aircraft. The first flying prototype T-4 is on the eternal docked in the Central Air Force Museum in the town of Monino, Moscow region.
The effort involved in the construction of aircraft T-4, were not in vain. Many technical ideas, achievements that were embodied in it, later used in the construction of many future generations strike aircraft. After the cessation of work on the theme of T-4 P. Sukhoi Design Bureau has focused on creating a front-line fighter and attack aircraft.
Plane T-4 characteristics:
|Wing area, m2||295.7|
|normal takeoff, kg||114000|
|maximum take-off, kg||135000|
|engine's type||4-36 TRD RD41|
|Thrust, kgf||X 4 16000|
|Maximum speed km / h||3200|
|Cruising speed, km / h||3000|
|Flight distance, km||7000|
|Practical ceiling, m||18000|
|Armament:||2 strategic missiles air-to-surface|
The aircraft Sukhoi T-4. Gallery.
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