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Khalkhin goal. 1939g. War.
Military aviation
Falcons Khalkhin Gol. 1939g. War.

Falcons Khalkhin Gol. 1939g. War.

 

At the beginning of 1939, a number of armed clashes occurred on the border of the Mongolian People's Republic and the state of Manchukuo, which was part of Japan's sphere of influence. Since under the treaty 1936, the protection of the Mongolian territories was assigned to the Red Army, then very soon these clashes turned into a major Soviet-Japanese conflict, which in Russian historiography is usually called "fights on Khalkhin-Gol" (after the name of the border river). The fighting took place from April to September 1939 and ended with the complete victory of the Red Army. During the conflict, both sides actively used various military equipment, including the Air Force, whose actions will be considered in this article.

Highlights of the air war

The first air fights showed the superiority of Japanese aviation. The Soviet Air Force suffered tangible losses. In the air battles of 27 and 28 in May, the 22 IAP lost 15 aircraft. The Japanese, in turn, lost one car. This situation was seriously disturbed by the Soviet leadership. The failures of our air forces in Mongolia were due to the fact that the Japanese had considerable technical superiority, and in terms of training, the Soviet pilots were inferior to the Japanese ones. The command of the Red Army resolved this problem by updating the materiel, employing an experienced flight crew, and ensuring numerical superiority.

I-15bis

I-15bis

29 May Mongolia sent a group of pilots, behind which was the experience of air combat in Spain and at Lake Hassan. Soviet commanders considered them not as a recruitment series, but primarily as trainers aircrew. They led the corps commander Smushkevich Y., who took command of the Air Force 1-Army Group. This event had a positive impact on the state of the Soviet Air Force in the conflict. In the fighting in June 22- 26 our pilots shot down enemy planes about 50, a balance in the Mongolian sky.

27 June, the Japanese Air Force made a massive raid on Soviet airfields. They managed to destroy 19 aircraft, limiting themselves to the loss of two bombers and three fighters. During the airfights 22-28 June, Japan's losses amounted to about 90 cars, which was a serious blow to its aviation. The Soviet Air Force lost 36 aircraft. The red stars secured their supremacy in the air until the end of the war, despite the bitter confrontation of the Japanese. The numerical superiority and the developed aviation industry gave an indisputable trump card in the hands of the Soviet Air Force. For the Japanese side, with their production volumes, large losses were catastrophic.

And-16

And-16

20 August of the Red Army moved into a large-scale offensive, which was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment and airstrike. The operation took part 581 plane. Soviet bombers with fighter cover milled Japanese positions, thereby facilitating the work of the attacking ground forces.

Combat operations were discontinued 15 September 1939, at the request of the Japanese side. The victory was for the Soviet Union. In the battle the Soviet Union lost 207 aircraft, Japan - 162 (controversial figure, as a result of propaganda on both sides is difficult to establish precise data).

Bomber Security

Bomber Security

Description materiel warring parties

Materiel Soviet aviagruppirovki at the start of military operations consisted of fighters and 15bis-AND-16, SB bombers and attack P-5.

And 15bis-fighter biplane with fixed landing gear, was hopelessly outdated machine that could not fight on equal terms with the newest Japanese aircraft. At the time, he fared well in Spain and China. The main advantages of the aircraft were good maneuverability, stability and strong arms for the time (four machine guns PV-1 7,62 mm). The machine was installed engine M-25V (750 hp). Besides aircraft guns could carry bomb armament (150 kg). Until the mid-summer and 15bis was the main fighter of the Soviet Air Force in Mongolia. Subsequently, it was replaced by "The Seagull."

P-5

multi-purpose F-5

And-16 type 5 (they were equipped with 70-th IAP) was a high-speed fighter monoplane with retractable landing gear. Unfortunately, the existing aircraft could not be actively used in air battles due to extreme wear and tear. On their replacement came the modification of the fighter. At first it was an I-16 type 10 with an M-25V engine and four XK-XMXX mm SCAC machine guns. Then there was the I-7,62 type 16, which was armed with two SHKAS and two 17 mm ShVAK guns. In this modification, the strengthening of weapons led to an increase in mass, which negatively affected maneuverability. For fights with Japanese fighters, he suited little, so it was used mainly as a stormtrooper. On I-20 type 16 there was a new engine M-18 (62 hp).

Modernization and-16 carried out in the field. For example, on the type of installation performed 10 M-62. To reduce the weight of the aircraft with a shot different secondary equipment, batteries and oxygen tanks. Sets holders for bombs and rockets. There was use of missiles against air targets (group captain Zvonareva 22-IAP).

Mass applied and-153 «The Seagull." It was a biplane with retractable landing gear. The aircraft, along with I-16 was the backbone of the Soviet Air Force fighter aircraft of the prewar period. Despite the fact that the new jet-15bis excellent and he is much inferior to the Japanese Ki-27 on flight characteristics. Among the shortcomings should be noted waypoint imbalance that is preventing sighting, and poor visibility in the front, which causes the structure of the upper wing.

Bombers Soviet side was represented by aircraft SB and TB-3. By this time the Security Council has become obsolete and could not use the advantage in speed, the new Japanese fighters easily overtook him. At the same time, the bomber characterized by high reliability and survivability. Well-behaved showed TB-3, during the conflict was lost only one machine.

TB-3

TB-3

The greatest danger to the Soviet fighter aircraft represented the Japanese Ki-27 «Nakajima." It was an all-metal monoplane with fixed landing gear. He surpassed all Soviet fighters in speed, agility (he was the most maneuverable fighter of its time) and climb. At the same time, Ki-27 much inferior to the Soviet machines in arms (two machine guns type 89 7,7 mm). The weak point was the reliability of the design, during abrupt maneuvers the aircraft could lose the wings.

Ki-27 «Nakajima"

Ki-27 «Nakajima"

In connection with the loss of the Japanese command was forced to use outdated fighters Ki-10, which Soviet pilots managed without much difficulty.

Ki-30

Ki-30

The main Japanese bombers was Ki-30 (light bomber Army Type 97). The advantage of the aircraft was its high speed (432 km / h), which allowed him (without bombs) go unpunished by Soviet fighters. Another bomber was actively used Ki-21 (Army heavy bomber type 97), whose advantage was that he was working at heights reach of Soviet fighters. The conflict was also attended by bombers Ki-36, Ki-32 and "Fiat» BR-20, but their use has not been widespread.

 

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