Falcons Khalkhin Gol. 1939g. War.
At the beginning of 1939 on the border of the Mongolian People's Republic and the state Manchukuo, which was part of the sphere of influence of Japan, there were a number of armed clashes. Since the contract was 1936 protection of Mongolian territory was assigned to the part of the Red Army, then very soon these clashes escalated into a major Soviet-Japanese conflict, which in the national historiography is usually called "battles of Khalkhin Gol" (named after the border river). The fighting took place from April to September, the 1939 and ended with the complete victory of the Red Army. During the conflict, both sides are actively using various military equipment, including the air force, whose actions will be covered in this article.
Highlights of the air war
The first aerial combat showed the superiority of the Japanese aircraft. Soviet Air Force suffered heavy losses. In aerial combat 27 and 28 May 22-15 IAP lost aircraft. The Japanese, in turn, lost one machine. This situation is seriously concerned about the Soviet leadership. The failure of our Air Force in Mongolia was due to the fact that the Japanese had a significant technological superiority, but in terms of training, Soviet pilots concede the Japanese. This problem is solved by the command of the Red Army Materiel updates, zadeystvaniya experienced flight crews, as well as providing a numerical superiority.
29 May Mongolia sent a group of pilots, behind which was the experience of air combat in Spain and at Lake Hassan. Soviet commanders considered them not as a recruitment series, but primarily as trainers aircrew. They led the corps commander Smushkevich Y., who took command of the Air Force 1-Army Group. This event had a positive impact on the state of the Soviet Air Force in the conflict. In the fighting in June 22- 26 our pilots shot down enemy planes about 50, a balance in the Mongolian sky.
27 June the Japanese Air Force made a massive raid on Soviet airfields. They managed to destroy the aircraft 19, limiting the loss of two bombers and three fighters. During dogfights 22-28 June loss Japan accounted for about 90 machines, which is a serious blow to its aircraft. Soviet Air Force aircraft lost 36. Red Star secured their supremacy in the air until the end of the war, despite the fierce opposition of the Japanese. Numerical superiority and advanced aviation industry gave an indisputable trump card in the hands of the Soviet Air Force. For the Japanese hand with their volumes of the largest losses were catastrophic.
20 August of the Red Army moved into a large-scale offensive, which was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment and airstrike. The operation took part 581 plane. Soviet bombers with fighter cover milled Japanese positions, thereby facilitating the work of the attacking ground forces.
Combat operations were discontinued 15 September 1939, at the request of the Japanese side. The victory was for the Soviet Union. In the battle the Soviet Union lost 207 aircraft, Japan - 162 (controversial figure, as a result of propaganda on both sides is difficult to establish precise data).
Description materiel warring parties
Materiel Soviet aviagruppirovki at the start of military operations consisted of fighters and 15bis-AND-16, SB bombers and attack P-5.
And 15bis-fighter biplane with fixed landing gear, was hopelessly outdated machine that could not fight on equal terms with the newest Japanese aircraft. At the time, he fared well in Spain and China. The main advantages of the aircraft were good maneuverability, stability and strong arms for the time (four machine guns PV-1 7,62 mm). The machine was installed engine M-25V (750 hp). Besides aircraft guns could carry bomb armament (150 kg). Until the mid-summer and 15bis was the main fighter of the Soviet Air Force in Mongolia. Subsequently, it was replaced by "The Seagull."
And type-16 5 (them equipped with 70-IAP) was fast fighter monoplane with retractable landing gear. Unfortunately, the available aircraft could not be actively used in dogfights due to extreme wear. On their replacement came modification fighter. First it was and 16-10 type of engine M-25V and four machine guns ShKAS 7,62 mm. And then there was a kind-16 17, which was armed with two ShKAS and two 20 ShVAK mm guns. In this modification, enhancement weapons led to an increase in weight, which has a negative impact on maneuverability. For fights with Japanese fighters approached it a little, so was used primarily as a ground attack aircraft. And on-16 18 was a new type of engine M-62 (800 l. from.).
Modernization and-16 carried out in the field. For example, on the type of installation performed 10 M-62. To reduce the weight of the aircraft with a shot different secondary equipment, batteries and oxygen tanks. Sets holders for bombs and rockets. There was use of missiles against air targets (group captain Zvonareva 22-IAP).
Mass applied and-153 «The Seagull." It was a biplane with retractable landing gear. The aircraft, along with I-16 was the backbone of the Soviet Air Force fighter aircraft of the prewar period. Despite the fact that the new jet-15bis excellent and he is much inferior to the Japanese Ki-27 on flight characteristics. Among the shortcomings should be noted waypoint imbalance that is preventing sighting, and poor visibility in the front, which causes the structure of the upper wing.
Bombers Soviet side was represented by aircraft SB and TB-3. By this time the Security Council has become obsolete and could not use the advantage in speed, the new Japanese fighters easily overtook him. At the same time, the bomber characterized by high reliability and survivability. Well-behaved showed TB-3, during the conflict was lost only one machine.
The greatest danger to the Soviet fighter aircraft represented the Japanese Ki-27 «Nakajima." It was an all-metal monoplane with fixed landing gear. He surpassed all Soviet fighters in speed, agility (he was the most maneuverable fighter of its time) and climb. At the same time, Ki-27 much inferior to the Soviet machines in arms (two machine guns type 89 7,7 mm). The weak point was the reliability of the design, during abrupt maneuvers the aircraft could lose the wings.
In connection with the loss of the Japanese command was forced to use outdated fighters Ki-10, which Soviet pilots managed without much difficulty.
The main Japanese bombers was Ki-30 (light bomber Army Type 97). The advantage of the aircraft was its high speed (432 km / h), which allowed him (without bombs) go unpunished by Soviet fighters. Another bomber was actively used Ki-21 (Army heavy bomber type 97), whose advantage was that he was working at heights reach of Soviet fighters. The conflict was also attended by bombers Ki-36, Ki-32 and "Fiat» BR-20, but their use has not been widespread.
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