The plane Yak-1 is a Soviet fighter, which is actively used in the Second World War. This single-engined machine was designed under the guidance of renowned designer A. Yakovlev. The project originally had the designation as a fighter I-26, after state tests, he was accepted for serial production, where he received the well-known designation Yak-1. This machine was manufactured with 1940 year for four years, during all this time it was created 8734 apparatus of this brand.
History of the Yak-1
It is safe to say that the reason for the creation of this machine is the emergence of the German aircraft the Messerschmitt, who was a fighter with a very high flight and combat characteristics. It is because of the appearance of this machine, the Soviet government actively undertook the creation of the domestic counter. Initially we planned to upgrade the already created-16, but it did not bring any positive results.
Therefore, the government in the early years of the last century 39 has set designers task of manufacturing high-quality Soviet fighter in a short line, so that it is not inferior to the German counterpart. The best results in this respect reached a group of designers led by Yakovlev. The basis of the new fighter was taken lightweight sports machine type I-7. This machine is characterized by high speed of flight, which reached 330 km / h. Production of full-scale cars produced at the aircraft factory №115, and led the whole process of the chief designer KV Sinel'shchikov.
The first Yak-1 made separation from the runway at the beginning of the year 40. During the second flight of this machine has developed a top speed of 587 km / h, and all this at an altitude of more than 5 thousand meters. During the test flight the machine showed excellent flight characteristics, and in the late spring of this year he was transferred to the state tests. Government officials did not even wait for the end of the test. In late August 40, the car was put into serial production. It went accelerated pace since the war began. At this time, this machine has been in almost every aircraft shelf.
Design Features Yak-1
The body of the machine has been manufactured by a mixed scheme and is a monoplane. The frame was made from farm via pipe welds feature was that used hromansilevye pipe. All plating apparatus was made of duralumin. The nose of the car was made up of individual sheets of metal, and the tail trim was more dense and was attached to the stinger, which were made of wood. Wings Yak-1 were also made of wood and were constructed of two spars. Aircraft wings have the scope to ten meters, and the area was 17,15 meters.
With regard to propulsion of the aircraft, it has been presented 12-cylinder engine, which had a V-shaped. The engine had the designation M-105 and was equipped with a liquid cooling system. Its volume was large enough and was 35 liters. At maximum speed it can supply power to the airplane 1,1 thousand horsepower.
The initial armament of the fighter was presented ShVAK gun type, which had a gauge in 22 mm. This weapon was taken near the cylinders. Furthermore gun ShKAS two synchronous systems were installed.
During the manufacture of this machine is almost constantly improve and modernize. Domestic designers were active development and modifications for this project. More advanced Yak-1 were equipped with a new, more powerful power plant, which had to 200 more horsepower than the first aircraft of this type. There was also set a perfect bolt-type VISH 105SV, which is able to automatically change the pitch rotation in flight. Wires and simplification of the machine housing. These metamorphoses raised all the flight characteristics of the aircraft.
Also new fighter had more combat power, namely, the wing has been installed caliber machine gun 12,7 mm, from which it was possible to produce 220 shots. As for large-caliber guns, it had significantly increased the combat kit and could produce 140 volleys at the enemy. In addition to the merits, the Yak-1 and had many shortcomings, who tried to resolve the designers and manufacturers as they become available.
With Yak-1 our pilots during the war could exceed the enemy in the air. It is this device has received high recognition for pilots. A large number of pilots this machine was awarded the highest state awards.
In 1941, Germany attacked the USSR. About suddenness of the attack, you can argue, but the fact that the Soviet aircraft suffered heavy losses from the actions of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) at the beginning of the war is not in doubt. Among other reasons for the defeat of the Soviet Air Force can be called the technical backwardness of the material, more simply outdated aircraft. At the beginning of the war, the Soviet Union was the main fighter-16 and, by that time already obsolete and significantly inferior to the high-speed characteristics of the German Bf-109 both versions E and F (to the beginning of the war their relationship in the German part was about to 1 2, respectively).
And in fact the speed is the most important indicator of the efficiency of a fighter, because without speed advantage can not be to impose a fight at favorable terms, or get away from it when the situation requires it, or to intercept enemy bombers or to help her. However, to realize this fact, Soviet engineers took a bloody lesson.
Also at that time in the part began to come more modern machines such as the Yak-1, 3-MiG and LaGG-3, but despite its higher first-speed performance, they are still inferior to the German main opponent - Bf-109FAlthough already caught up and even surpassed several Bf-109E. In addition, they were "raw", not carried, and therefore had a lot of failures and breakdowns that did not contribute to their combat effectiveness. Among all three most "decent" looked Yak-1, and which is considered in this article.
Initially, the Yak-1 developed as a front-line fighter for air superiority in the low and medium altitudes. For this reason he had the lightweight design (compared to the MiG and LaGG), partly due to the small reserve of fuel and reduced armament. However, the main problem was the MiG very concept for which it was designed. Namely fight at high altitudes (above 5000m), where he was really an excellent fighter, but the problem was that the fighting at this altitude is very rare, because the strategic aircraft from the Luftwaffe virtually non-existent, and the fighting was mainly at altitudes up to 3000m, where the aircraft flew close support of troops. And at this altitude MiG much lost in his agility and speed, ie, It became useless.
But back to Yakushima. Being developed by the Design Bureau AS Yakovlev and accepted into service in 1940 year, the outbreak of war in the Red Army Air Force units were about Yak 800-1. The aircraft was equipped with an engine M-105PA, the maximum capacity of 1100 hp, has a practical range of in 650 km, armament consisted of one 20mm ShVAK cannon and two machine guns 7.62mm ShKAS installed in the nose of the aircraft. Most of the fighters was lost in the first weeks of the war, resulting in a rout of the Red Army, together with the Air Force, and quite a few of these aircraft actually took part in the fighting. But those that took showed that the Yakovlev Design Bureau created a perspective plane, because the advantage of Bf-109F speed of the Yak-1 near the ground was about 40 km / h, and maneuverability, which becomes important when the difference in speed indicators fighters warring countries is insignificant approximately equal in both fighters and over dependent on pilot skill than on aircraft capabilities.
And despite the fact that the Yak-1 was made partly of wood and partly of fabric, well, small amounts of duralumin (an all-metal against a German opponent). Collected all this was far from being at the highest level, unfortunately precision assembly domestic aircraft factories at that time were not different, because the slogan was the phrase "Let's give the front more planes!" Instead of "Let's give the front qualitatively collected planes!" (It is not necessary to say, build quality Bf-109 was at the highest level). And working in these factories often women and children, not the professionals who have been trained for this, but called in the army ...
In addition, a big problem at the time was the lack of powerful and reliable engines. But tactical and technical data plane and are determined primarily by its engine (a vivid example of bad LaGG-3, which abruptly became very successful after it established a sufficiently powerful engine DB-82 and the aircraft became known as La-5). Yak-1 had before on 200 horsepower less than Bf-109F. Yet it should be noted that the beginning of operation "Messer" was in 1937 year, at the time of the war with the USSR, he was a civil war in Spain, the campaign in Poland, France and the Battle of Britain. It is revealed, if not all, then most of its shortcomings, which have been eliminated, and air battles with the USSR Air Force brainchild of Willie Messerschmidt came "in his prime," while the plane Yakovlev was still raw and "untried".
In order to eliminate the above disadvantages serious steps have been taken, which consisted of:
- - Installation of forced motor M 105PF, with a capacity of 1210 hp
- - Installation of the new drop-shaped glass cockpit, this improved overview, aerodynamics, and through the use of bronestekol also protect pilots
- - Replacement of two machine guns ShKAS on the UX, which greatly increased firepower
- - General improvement in the aerodynamics of the aircraft
- - Reducing weight through the replacement of wooden and canvas design elements on duralumin
|The / Modification||Yak-1||Yak-1||Yak-1B||Yak-1 M 105PF||Yak-1 M 106P||Yak-1M|
|Wing area, m2||17.15||17.15||14.85|
|Empty weight, kg||2445||2490||2394||2412||2427||2133|
|Normal takeoff weight, kg||2950||2995||2883||2917||2927||2655|
|Rated power, hp||1020||1210||1250||1210|
|Power take-off, HP||1100||1210||1350||1210|
|Maximum speed at the ground, km / h||472||437||531||510||535||545|
|Maximum speed at height, km / h||569||528||592||571||610||632|
|Practical range, km||650||760||700||650||650||585|
|The maximum rate of climb, m / min||877||806||926||833||893||1220|
|Practical ceiling, m||10000||9500||10050||10000||9900||10700|
|Gunnery||X 1 20-mm gun ShVAK
2 x 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS
|X 1 20-mm gun ShVAK
1 x 12.7-mm machine gun UBS
After the improvements, the plane was designated Yak-1B. Serial release of fighters started in September 1942 years. However, despite significant improvements in aircraft performance issue it was soon suspended due to the transition to the production of Yak-9, who had even higher performance characteristics and is already in some respects superior to his opponent's period - Bf-109G. For all the time it was released Yak 8734-1, including the modification of the "B" was produced 4188 units.
The successes of the Yak-1 were modest compared to Yak-9But we should not forget that the first handed down on themselves the most difficult period of the war and largely defined as successful design of the legendary "nine".
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