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In October 1989 has been made aircraft carrier "Kuznetsov", which could take the fighters on their deck, but it was not yet fully staffed. He had a full range of devices for takeoff and landing aircraft, but has not yet had a radar system. Fighter aircraft could only fly over the deck work, but at a very low altitude, sometimes they touched the deck wheels. At the end of October 89, it was decided to make the first landing of the Su-33 on the deck of an aircraft carrier named after Kuznetsov. The first landing was successful, and on the same day was made taking off from the deck. At the helm of the new fighter was test B. Pugachev. All flight tests of Su-33 1989 completed in November of the year.
Description based fighter Su-33
This model is a longitudinal triplane, just as Su-27. For landing on the deck of the ship, this machine has a brake hook that attaches to the bottom of the central beam. Arrow-shaped wing is, it comprises three sections and two slotted flap. To reduce the size of the aircraft on the deck of aircraft carriers, it is equipped with folding wings that rotate to an angle in degrees 135, all corners of the wing provides the hydraulic system.
This type of design reduces the wing occupies a plane place in a hangar or on a deck. Due to the use of an aircraft in relatively harsh environments has increased resistance to corrosion design. Also, designers have thought through the protection of all on-board systems of differential temperature and the humidity.
The new machine Su-33 all shortcomings have been taken into account, which was in the previous model based fighter. Firstly, the height was significantly reduced tail vertically, as well as increased use chassis, which allows for more efficient land on the deck. As for the chassis, then there is also a change is made. The wheels on this car are smaller than its predecessor. The front landing gear is a dual wheel, which can rotate 60 degrees. Such wheels turn increased maneuverability of the aircraft on the deck of an aircraft carrier. It was also increased pressure fighter wheels. When emergency ejection seat is provided, it too has been improved compared to the Su-27. It helps the pilot to withstand heavy overload maneuvers.
Deck fighter this model is equipped with two turbofan engines AL-31K capacity 13 300 kgs each. These models are themselves aggregates Turbofan with afterburner. The Su-33 can install additional outboard tank with fuel. The aircraft has the ability to refuel in midair, and the role of the tanker can perform another Su-33. In the air mode, refueling fighter can get up to 6 tons of fuel.
The new fighter was found better and more modern avionics. It was eliminated all mechanical control system, which has come to replace the automatic navigation system that provides control of all major systems. It provides for automatic adjustment of thrust, adjusts the set point in the flight, as well as automatic landing is possible through the use of "Resistor-K-42», which is installed on aircraft carriers.
Features of operation of Su-33
The aircraft has the ability to take off from the decks of varying length run. Standard carriers have three runways, the length of which is different: two of them have 105 meters and another 195 meters. Sunset aircraft landing leads a team of specialists on the bridge of the ship, and it controls the trajectory of movement of the aircraft. After the plane will produce touch the deck, he clings to hook their rope to the deck, which should make a stop the airplane. With this landing the pilot is experiencing greater congestion. After the plane touched the deck, the pilot must turn the engines to maximum power. This is to ensure that when the cable arresting gear breakage or unlinked hook the pilot was able to take off from the deck of an aircraft carrier and make a second attempt at landing.
Features based fighter Su-33
Despite the fact that the new model Su-33 and manufactured on the basis of the Su-27, it still has a lot of advantages.
Firstly, it improved the quality of the wings during takeoff and landing, this could be achieved by increasing the area of the wing.
For a safe and short takeoff was increased thrust-machine. Reinforced rack help pilot aircraft and more comfortable to pass overload.
New navigation equipment provides safety and accuracy landing, has the ability to work with the equipment carrier for a precision approach.
Folding wings allow to place more fighters aboard the aircraft carrier. A protected parts of the aircraft allow this machine to serve much longer.
Take-off weight of the aircraft increased to 33 tons, due to this has been to increase the mass of payload to 6,5 tons. Increased weapons load allowed to hang for one fighter Su-33 12 immediately missiles "air - air" and up to six missiles model P-73.
The refueling system can increase the range, and the refueling boom is in front of the pilot left the cockpit. This allows you to more effectively monitor the filling process.
The modernization of Su-33
According to statistics for October 2010, the Sukhoi Design Bureau named begin flight tests of a new upgraded model of the Su-33. Unfortunately, there is no data on what exactly innovation is the model of the machine. Regularly repair and modernization of deck fighters. Over the past two years we have been the modernization of four machines Su-33, after which they were sent to Severomorsk. Repair and improvement of aircraft held in Komsomolsk, with 2002 years 19 here has been upgraded deck fighters of this model. To date, the Russian army are on combat duty 22 deck fighter of the sample.
Su-33 was adopted in the summer of 1998 years. Total for the Russian Navy was made 26 machines of this type, but over the years of operation of the aircraft was lost 4. Soon, these fighters will be replaced by more advanced and reliable car brand MiG-29. The plans of the military command of the Russian Federation in the year 2015-33 Su will be removed from service.
In the early 1940 years there was a question on the replenishment of naval units such as aircraft carriers. But to begin to embody this idea was only after the Second World War. Carrier fleet decided to build on the basis of existing ship design 1143. In April 1978 years was ready project documentation to establish an aircraft carrier. It was assumed that the aircraft carrier will sit Yak-41, 27K Su-Su-25K and Ka-27.
In April 1984 year MMZ pendant began to develop, build and test of the ship's fighter Su-27K. It provided support for the fleet in all weather conditions. He could climb 27 km, making it possible to deal with ASW helicopters, transporters, radio reconnaissance aircraft; He used the plane to accompany land-based aircraft. Summer 1987 first prototype was ready to fly.
After the first flight became clear that the flight characteristics have deteriorated, but some modification of the wing and PGO led to reducing the approach speed. In 1989 year it was made the first stage of the test. The plane ran in on a normal runway. In November 1989, the first plane landed on the deck.
The Su-33 photo
КDecember all LCI test aircraft were completed 1990 years, during which identified the main technical, tactical flight and combat characteristics. In March 1991, began state tests, which lasted up to 1994 years. At this time already 24 serial Su-27K was built. The next step in the development of the famous Su was the construction of a new modification of the Su-33.
This aircraft has been built on an integrated aerodynamic configuration and added canards. It was done folding, it saves space. Canard possible to increase the load-bearing properties of the airframe and improved performance at high angles of attack. Wings of a trapezoidal shape, with the extension near the fuselage smoothly into the body. To save space, the wings are made foldable.
The Su-33 inside
Established two dual-circuit afterburning engine AL-31F. The aircraft also can refuel in the air. If you set the ORM-1 system, he is able to refuel other aircraft in the air. The navigation system PNA-10 calculates the coordinates in space, allows you to automatically adjust the position, based on satellite data. Airborne radar helps to prevent the scanning of the enemy aircraft. The aircraft used on the warning system irradiation ACT-15LM. On the wings used Jammer.
Su-33 became the first domestic production aircraft, able to sit on the deck of an aircraft carrier. The aircraft is the most powerful and long-range ship-based fighter in the world.
The Su-33 characteristics
Aircraft such as Su-33UB is a combat training machine, which is equipped with jet engines. The aircraft is designed specifically for carrier-based aircraft carrier on. This machine belongs to the fourth generation fighters.
The most important feature of this unit can be considered as the location of the pilots. No training machine does not have the pilots location on a "shoulder to shoulder." But precisely because of this placement is controlled by pilots more efficiently and simultaneously, which is very important when landing on the deck of the ship. The innovation can be called and that pilots get to the cabin through the gap of the front chassis on a special ladder.
If we compare the structure of the aircraft with the model of Su-33, here too, there are many differences. Firstly, the keels of machines SU-33UB were increased, and the area of the wings, tail machine. The wings were formed so that they have the same width as the tail unit. This led to the fact that this car began to demand more space in the ship's hangar.
A special feature is the cross-section of the front part of the body, because it is made entirely circular, it can be explained by a form of radar stations of the "Beetle". Also, the location was changed to "Visor" of the system, which is secured on the symmetry axis.
History of creation and tests of the Su-33UB
Apparatus Su-33UB is a deep modification of the Su-33, which was used for aircraft carriers. The beginning of a new car can be considered 1989 year. It was then that the Sukhoi Design Bureau started the project training machines that would be used for training pilots of front-sailors. When designing almost immediately, it was decided to make a tandem machine. This decision was taken due to the fact that the car with the pilot location can perform tasks more effectively and quickly.
The new specimen was built at the aircraft plant in Komsomolsk, but the final layout of the system was completed in Moscow.
The first Su-33UB made separation from the runway spring 1999 year at Zhukovsky airfield. Features of this unit far superior to their foreign counterparts, for example, aircraft such as the F-14D and «Boeing» F / A-18E / F.
The basis of the success of the Su-33UB can be considered as a new on-board that allows you to produce a variety of military operations. In addition, all the equipment is specifically designed for use in marine environments. With regard to this fighter model, it has excellent performance when landing and taking off from the ground airfield with a fairly short runways.
Design features of the Su-33UB
Driving body conceived as an integral triplane, which has excellent aerodynamic qualities. If you compare the aerodynamics of the car with the aerodynamics of the Su-33, the new machine has a performance higher by 10%. By increasing the aerodynamic qualities were able to reduce fuel consumption by 20%.
In designing this machine it was used by a large number of composite materials, but the main parts were still made of aluminum alloys. So, it is made of aluminum alloy aircraft wings, which significantly increases their survivability in combat. In addition, this design is pretty easy, but reliable. The use of light alloys and composite materials has reduced the overall weight of the car to the mass of single fighter. The aircraft used by a large number of armored barriers that increase the vitality of the machine.
The power plant includes two aircraft turbofan engine model, but further modifications may be replaced by new and more efficient units. Under the wing of an airplane is a system of PTB. This model fighter has the ability to refuel in the air.
Pitch and roll of the aircraft managed by a new type of automatic FBWCS. It is able to carry out the control of the aerodynamic surfaces, flaperons, flaps, tail feathers, as well as control of the engine. Due to this equipment reduces the time to balance and greatly increases the power of lifting machines.
The first domestic production of fighter aircraft, which was equipped with a system for generating oxygen in the cockpit, it was the Su-33UB. This system provides the cockpit and nitrogen is significantly reduced dependence on ground handling aircraft.
With regard to the avionics, which is equipped with a plane, it meets the requirements of the first and 5-6-generation. This system has the size and weight significantly less than its previous version, and thus is able to perform more functions in less time. The aircraft has a multi-channel complex, which monitors all systems and provides the pilot with full information about the situation in the air.
To detect enemy aircraft Su-33UB equipped with thermal imaging and laser range finders that can observe the target and indicate the distance to it.
Another positive feature of the design can be called use in the cockpit of the "dark cockpit". In the car, such as the Su-33UB reduced the number of governing bodies, to simplify control of the machine learning. The cockpit is equipped with a color display, which displays complete information about the system and the status of the aircraft around. I design the system as an indicator of the impact on the windshield of the aircraft. As for tinning machine, it is considerably simplified compared to previous versions of the fighter.
Training class fighter Su-33UB was made in only one copy. At first it was planned to put the project on serial production. Even there was an order from the Chinese Air Force 40 machines, but soon they canceled my order, which led to the closure of the project.
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