AWACS (with English AWACS -. Airborne naming and control system) - US intelligence vysokopoletnyh type of aircraft, with a flat saucer antenna on top of the fuselage. The composition of equipment includes a powerful radar system that can determine the model of the aircraft and to follow the flight of the aircraft or missile.
The Russian aviation history instead of abbreviations such spy planes were called AWACS (Airborne Early Warning System and Control). Such a system is not only equipped with Soviet and Russian aircraft, but helicopters.
The first Soviet AWACS Tu-126
The first Soviet AWACS aircraft was released in connection with the need to control the northern neighborhoods of the Union. Setting the direction of ground stations was inappropriate due to harsh climatic conditions, as well as a vast area of border territories for which it was necessary to maintain control. The main threat is the possibility of breaking through the northern border of enemy strategic bombers with a nuclear bomb on board. Therefore, in 1958, in Tupolev Design Bureau began to develop the first Soviet AWACS, which served as the base of the passenger liner Tu-114. The first flight of the Tu-Soviet AWACS dates back to 126 1961, the
Above the rear part of the fuselage Tu-126 located mushroom dish with a diameter of 11 m. The radome antenna, through which run a scan of the airspace, spun together with all antenna design and did 10 complete revolutions per minute. The system was able to detect air targets at distances of up to 350 km (over land) and 400 km (above the water). She also had the opportunity to carry out radar radiation notch at a distance of up to 600 km and pass intelligence to the command post, located at a distance of up 2000 km. For long-term patrol the surrounding areas AWACS aircraft equipped with flight refueling system.
The structure of the power plant was to Tu-126 4 turboprop engine NK-12. The aircraft could reach a top speed of 750 km / h and overcome the distance to 7000 km without refueling. Through a refueling, the flight time, the machine was 18 hours.
Almost around the clock forced to be on the board of two crews 11chelovek who ruled AWACS shifts. There were built only 9 copies Tu-126. Unique at the time the ability of the intelligence complex aircraft did not require a finding in the arsenal of the country's large fleet of aircrafts.
These aircraft were stationed at military bases in the Baltic States and conducted a patrol duty until mid-80-ies to the emergence of more sophisticated systems A-50.
Unclaimed An AWACS and Yak-71-44
In 70-ies the Soviet government to reflect on the creation of new versions of AWACS aircraft. In these times, the idea of creating a powerful impact of the complex, which was based on the aircraft carrier. In the middle of 80-ies. The Soviet Union acquired the aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk, which could take on the role of the launch pad, placed on board the wing strike aircraft. The new aircraft was in addition to the detection and prosecution purposes efficiently manage all aviation units, soaring from the cruiser. That is, a new unit was assigned the role of an air command post.
In Kiev Antonov Design Bureau in order to create a new AWACS aircraft based on multi An-72 constructed An-71 with the AWACS system. The main difference from its predecessor is the location of the radome, which is placed on the tail. The impressive performance of the new device was: the simultaneous tracking of up to 120 air targets. In 1985, two such aircrafts, which was sent to the state tests were released. Despite the fact that the AN-71 has shown good results, adopted its not set because of the enormous size, are not allowed to be placed on an aircraft carrier.
Concerning Yak-44 - AWACS aircraft project by Yakovlev Design Bureau, it was taken by the aircraft Grumman E-2 Hawkeye shipborne basis for design developers. The project froze in the layout stage, the prototype was nedosobrannym, and after the Yak-44 project finally closed due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the lack of funding. In the days of the Soviet Union as well as a full-fledged aircraft carrier-based AWACS not been developed. The naval fleet of the country was modified to replace the aircraft Ka-31 installed with "AWACS".
A-50 - the only Russian AWACS aircraft
The only modern aircraft with Avast system, which is in service in the Russian Air Force is an A-50. It was created in the joint development of the Taganrog Beriev Design Bureau, LLC "Vega-M" and the Research Institute of Instrument-based IL-76. Especially radio navigation complex "bumblebee" was created for him. He managed to test and modify another Tu-126. Aircraft A-50, which was supposed to change on duty outdated Tu-126, justified the expectations of developers and significantly surpassed its predecessor LTH. RNA "Bumblebee" is able to detect air targets at distances of up to 650 km. List functionality AWACS aircraft expanded, and now he has the strength to detect cruise missiles from up to 200 km. Range fixation surface targets is limited visibility of the radio horizon. Modern AWACS system on A-50 allows simultaneous tracking of 300 12 goals and lead-yu fighters to pass intelligence to 60 aircraft for self-guidance.
The developers have taken care also to increase speed and range. A-50 crew consists of ten people. Aircraft A-50 contract purchased on the international market the Indian Air Force and China.
At the present time the fleet of aircraft A-50 19 in Russia has units, each of which is a modern air command post.
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