Reconnaissance aircraft
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Reconnaissance aircraft

Reconnaissance aircraft. Aerial reconnaissance.

 

Reconnaissance aircraft is the primary means of operational and one means of tactical reconnaissance.

Aviation Branch conducts reconnaissance and surveillance, correction of artillery fire and provides a link between the staffs. However, in the crucial period of fighting all types of aircraft, including the Branch should focus its efforts on the battlefield to engage manpower and resources fighting the enemy on the main line.

Place aviation intelligence in the general system of intelligence service

Aerial surveillance does not replace other forms of intelligence, but greatly complements them by establishing with them a continuous chain of reconnaissance and surveillance. In some cases, the aircraft may be the only possible means of obtaining the necessary information about the enemy.

With the ability to rapidly penetrate into the enemy in great depth, explore large areas quickly and rapidly deliver the extracted data command, aviation has become an indispensable tool for exploration of large groups of troops, what are armies, corps and divisions.

Aerial reconnaissance occupies an intermediate position between the agents acting on the territory of the enemy, and reconnaissance troops on the ground. In the course of combat actions of all kinds of work on the collection of intelligence information about the enemy closely intertwined, creating conditions consistent succession types of intelligence.

Discovered objects within the scope of surveillance intelligence Horta is new, it can not and should not disappear from view. Intelligence, air and ground reconnaissance consistently intercept surveillance detected object when it enters the zone of their action, passing it to each other.

Reconnaissance aircraft

Forms aerial reconnaissance

In combat aerial reconnaissance value is divided into:

  • a) operational
  • b) strategic.

Operational aerial reconnaissance conducted in the interests of the fronts and armies of command to determine the operational plans of the enemy (the enemy grouping and transfer of forces and resources, training of likely areas of operation within the front-line army or theater).

Tasks reconnaissance aircraft, determined by the nature of operations.

Operational aerial reconnaissance carried out in the interests of the Front Command, must penetrate deep into enemy territory on 200-500 km (zone of the rear area of ​​the front and the depth achieved several sequential steps).

Air reconnaissance carried out in the interests of the army command, being in the position of the enemy to a depth 100- 200 km surveillance zone covering rears the army.

Operational aerial reconnaissance carried out the order of the army and the army high command.

Tactical air reconnaissance is conducted for the benefit of troops and commanders of corps and divisions (where the division is the highest tactical formation) to determine the number, position and the actions of the enemy group in front of the military units.

Tactical air reconnaissance tasks determined by the nature of hostilities.

Exploration in the interest of Command Corps conducted to a depth of 60 km for timely detection of suitable provisions, especially fiercely-mechanized units.

Exploration in the interest of command division conducted to a depth of 30-40 km, providing timely command of the necessary solutions and carrying it into practice (meeting engagement with the open flank, the battle in the presence of the enemy mech. Connections).

Exploration in the interests of their own existing large mechanized formations and cavalry conducted in depth, providing them tasks.

Tactical air reconnaissance carried out the order of the command of the corresponding compound, which includes, or is formed into a reconnaissance aircraft serving part.

A special type of tactical intelligence is the observation of the battlefield, artillery, and service support of tanks.

Characteristics of aerial reconnaissance and its different types

1. Positive properties of aerial reconnaissance

  • 1) rapid penetration into the depths of the enemy position;
  • 2) rapid survey (with a particular purpose) vast areas;
  • 3) fast delivery command extracted data;
  • 4) the accuracy of the documentary photo-reconnaissance data;
  • 5) photo-reconnaissance objective impartiality.

2. Negative properties aerial reconnaissance

  • 1) difficulty recognizing camouflaged objects of the enemy;
  • 2) inability to obtain other data over and above those that can be detected by eye or a camera (documents, interrogation of prisoners, the study mood of the people and so on.);
  • 3) impossibility of a long and continuous observations of the same object (specifications: limited stay in the air, depending on weather and meteorological conditions).

Maintenance of combat reconnaissance aviation operation

However, planned and systematic aerial reconnaissance, supplemented by other types of intelligence, allows commanders to save certain information on the situation of the enemy to a certain point and reveal the dynamics of the situation at a certain time interval.

Reconnaissance aircraft

Characteristics of different types of aerial reconnaissance. Reconnaissance aircraft

I. subordinate units reconnaissance aircraft

Parts of reconnaissance aviation subordinated to the Chief of Staff of the army and receive from him the task.

2. Aerial reconnaissance tasks in the most typical operations

 

Counter Operation:

  • a) determining the intensity of traffic and areas of concentration of the bulk of the enemy;
  • b) the search for the main enemy forces, as well as its fast-moving parts, the establishment of the image of the action (standing, focus, put forward, deployed);
  • c) determination of the deployment line;
  • d) locating the Army Reserve, its strength and composition;
  • e) monitoring the flanks;
  • e) monitoring the activities of the administrative stations, supply stations and railways and ordinary roads;
  • g) exploration of the airfield network and air enemy.

 

The offensive:

  • a) exploration of the main line of defense;
  • b) determining the location of the enemy operational reserves and the direction of their movement;
  • c) surveillance of the railways and ordinary ways;
  • g) exploration rear defensive lines;
  • d) exploration of the enemy airfield network.

 

Defensive operation:

  • a) the establishment of the enemy force during its operational deployment;
  • b) establishing the location of reserves;
  • c) monitor the rear of the enemy to determine the nature of the attack (defensive line training, equipment, and so on crossings. h.);
  • d) monitoring of railway maneuver the enemy;
  • d) exploration of the airfield network.

Aerial reconnaissance

Retrograde step:

  • a) monitoring the progress of the enemy (advanced units and the main group);
  • b) monitoring the flanks;
  • c) special observation of the mechanized troops and the enemy's cavalry;
  • d) exploration of the airfield network.

In all kinds of operations in the task of Army Aviation intelligence service is part of the political agencies performing agitpoletov and throwing propaganda leaflets in the literature l location of its troops and the enemy.

 

Additional tasks reconnaissance aviation

In addition to aerial reconnaissance, surveillance and communications, reconnaissance aircraft, in some cases, it may be involved, and for other tasks inherent in other types of aircraft.

In exceptional circumstances, the situation, it can be used as a ground attack, bombers, and fighters.

When the actions of troops in the mountains on it, in addition to general problems, go to:

  • a) the problem of liaison between groups of forces operating in isolated areas;
  • b) monitoring the ways that go to these areas as part of the enemy, and on the flanks;
  • c) exploration of valleys, ridges, mountain passes and narrowness;
  • d) delivery of ammunition and other types of procurement groups of troops, cut off from their supply routes as the enemy and the terrain, as well as the link between them and the Command.

When the actions of troops in the sand on a reconnaissance aircraft, in addition to the tasks referred to in paragraphs. a, b and g, can be charged with finding water sources, easily visible (in the absence of prior sandstorms) of trails and tracks left by caravans.

Intelligence Objects

Railroads. On the railways, aerial reconnaissance should be examined railway junctions, stations and the section between them.

Aerial reconnaissance

The purpose of intelligence:

  • a) determining the timetable and the establishment of the intensity and nature of the traffic of the enemy;
  • b) study of the device and the operational work behind enemy lines;
  • c) verification of increasing the capacity of the railways;
  • d) preparation of a bombing raid on the railway junctions, stations, bridges and Stretches.

The timetable can be determined by observing the length of the railway section in 400-500 km simultaneous span with a continuous photographing him that make it possiblelit into account the size and nature of the rolling stock, following on it during the day, as the average speed of the route per day does not exceed the given distance.

 

View site in flight

If you view the portion of such magnitude can not be limited to areas in 250-300 km, viewing it twice a day every 12 hours.

The nature of traffic is determined by the presence on the review section of the military, procurement, sanitary and passenger trains, different from each other by the type of -vagonov and distribution in the train.

Military trains differ from procurement that have roughly the same number of cars (about 50); at present include 1-2 cool car in the middle of the train for the commanders, 8-10 platforms and the rest covered wagons. On the road and parked military trains can impersonate smoke field kitchens that are in cars, open doors and the presence of large numbers of people around the cars.

Resupply train different strength coaches, and trains with the ammunition have no more than 25-30 cars and other freight trains normally have about 45-50 wagons (covered and platforms).

Sanitary passenger trains are different from color and signs of the red cross or crescent.

Design and operation of operational rear set a specific location on the railways of different warehouses, stores and repair organs that unmasked unloading and loading of the rolling stock, the presence on the tracks make up and ready to train, the presence of motor and horse transport, the emergence of new ground, heavily trodden roads and sometimes the presence of goods placed on the ground in the form of long and relatively narrow stacks.

Increasing the capacity of the railway and a major node is determined by: the opening and construction of new sidings; Excavation work on hauls and stations for the broadening and extension of station platforms and the laying of new tracks; Construction of the new station and the expansion of existing ones; the advent of marshalling stations and freight cranes, platforms, and so on. p. for mechanization of loading and unloading.

Preparing the bombing raid on the railway junction is performed by aerial survey, determining the area

bombing and recognition structures (Depot, station building, water tower, tower vodoemnaya turning device, a building with a central control arrows), bridges, viaducts, etc. n.

 

Highways and dirt roads

When groundwater exploration and highways need to determine:

  • a) the nature of the traffic on the roads (composition, depth columns, time and place of detection, direction and, if possible, and speed of movement);
  • b) the location of the rear (warehouses, storage facilities, repair shops, and landmark medical institutions, exchange offices and so on. n.);
  • c) areas and settlements occupied by operational and strategic reserves.

Movement columns unmasked summer in dry weather, dust, rain and summer after the winter - a change in the tone of the road where moving troops or convoys; after summer rains, with alternating areas of dry and soaked, the latter are more sharply protruding, easily confused with columns of troops.

Particular attention is drawn to the narrowness of the road: bridge, causeway, crossing, gorges, dams and roads going through the swamps, where the troops is difficult to use concealment measures.

A significant challenge for intelligence are forest roads, roads, lined with trees, as well as those that grow near bushes and small groups of trees.

Location of rear bodies found on road and equine transport busy road convoys retreating from the village roads, the smoke from the kitchen and fires, sometimes in herds of cattle and small lambing.

Areas and settlements occupied by operational and strategic reserves differ: the presence of shooting ranges, engineering towns (trenches and fortifications with artificial barriers built for training purposes) and field arenas; The accumulation of a large number of people, horses, wagons and cars; Significant movement in and between settlements; The laying of new roads and the widening of the rutted part of the old; The appearance of trampled places, causing bleakness in the summer, and in the winter darkening of the terrain, and sometimes the appearance of a large number of dugouts and various earthen buildings, and at night fires.

Reinforced rear boundaries. Reinforced rear lines are within normal 50-100 km away from the contact line between the troops of the enemy, providing

the possibility of organized resistance in the event of a forced retreat.

Aerial reconnaissance

Reinforced rear lines consist of fortified zones and zones of the barrier

The characteristic features of the equipment lines are:

  • a) Earthworks for the passage of the trenches of all kinds and purposes, communication trenches, shelters and shelters;
  • b) construction of new roads and widening of existing as a result of traffic, podvozyaschego building materials; natoptannostey appearance of walking people working in the buildings;
  • c) deforestation and bush (clearing fire); Recently especially true when creating blokgauznoy defense and spotted;
  • d) the demolition of various buildings in the settlements located on the territory of the foreign and in the immediate vicinity (clearing fire);
  • d) the existence and construction of warehouses near the borders of building materials;
  • e) the presence of a large number of podvezennyh building materials (cement barrels, logs, rails, boards, rolls of barbed wire);
  • g) the availability of special land use machines (excavators, concrete mixers, crushers, and so on. n.);
  • h) the presence in some cases, a narrow-gauge railway field, with the nearest train station.

 

Aerial reconnaissance is to establish:

  • a) the total mark of fortified or strengthen abroad, stretching his wide and deep;
  • b) the degree of development of engineering structures in different directions;
  • c) the type of natural and artificial barriers;
  • d) if possible, the nature of work on the preparation of areas obstacles.

 

Airfields and aerouzly

Characteristic features of airfields are:

  • a) flat and devoid of obstacles terrain used for airfields;
  • b) traces of the aircraft wheels, crutches and ski (in winter);
  • c) the aircraft on the ground, tents;
  • d) personnel of the busy traffic, and sometimes cars;
  • d) take-offs and landings.

The configuration of the airfield and the cover of the terrain do not have distinctive features; In addition, the widely used natural and artificial camouflage largely eliminates all unmasking signs of airfields. It should also be taken into account that numerous false aerodromes will be arranged to mislead the air reconnaissance aircraft. All of this together makes it difficult to reconnoitre aerodromes and requires conducting it through a continuous, systematic observation of the area where, for a number of reasons, the presence of airfields is assumed. Maintaining systematic observation of enemy airfields, the main objective is to establish the time when enemy aircraft will be on the ground, representing a good object for their destruction by air attack.

 

Aviation Branch. Subordination

Branch aviation organization included in the military units in various armies or directly subordinate commanders or his chief of staff.

Artillery Aviation subordinate commander of the artillery military units, which it is imparted or which includes.

on the airfield drainage areas of recruitment, training and special aviation logistics Aviation Branch Chief of the Air Force army obeys.

Parts of military aviation, military units temporarily imparted, respectively, subject to the same superiors, but only operationally.

The overall objectives of the military and general aviation facilities reconnaissance and surveillance

  • 1. Exploration in the interest command combined arms or parts. Objects of intelligence: the enemy troops, especially Moto mehsoedineniya located on the motion or on the spot.
  • 2. Exploration on the heads of the armed forces. Objects of intelligence: the enemy forces that are in motion, or on-site, but at a depth of no more than 15-20 km, especially artillery and motomehchasti.
  • 3. Observation of the battlefield. The objects of observation: the enemy troops and your orders in combat, regimental, divisional and corps reserves.
  • 4. Control of artillery fire. Objects: artillery battery firing positions, tanks concentrated in orders or columns, as a suitable enemy reserves from the depths and placed on the battlefield, headquarters, ammunition supply routes.
  • 5. Air connection, sending commands and receiving reports troops from them,
  • 6. Check disguise their troops.
  • 7. Air delivery of ammunition and other items in the following cases:

a) The individual parts of the environment,

b) actions by a large margin from the front and) fighting with forcing major river barriers. In some cases, the combat situation (fighting enemy airborne troops, the destruction of forced their way into the rear of his defense mechanized units) Branch Aviation contributes to ground troops in the fight against ground targets, and rarely involved, and to fight against enemy aircraft.

 

Common facilities Intelligence

The objects are aerial reconnaissance of enemy forces as being in motion, and are located on-site (camp, overnight, concentration area).

When placing troops on the ground:

  • a) at the location in the settlements: the road to a suitable locality, streets, gardens, vegetable gardens and courtyards to discover obozoz, artillery, vehicles, tents, tetherposts, field kitchens and so on. n .;
  • b) at the location of bivouac:

1) groves, forest edges and bushes for the detection of tents, wagons, trucks, tanks, artillery, field kitchens, tetherposts and groups of people;

2) banks of rivers and lakes, and the space between them and the nearest natural cover (forest, trees) to detect equine composition at the watering or during their journey to it.

 

Telltale signs of combat arms at the location on the site.

Infantry; a large crowd of people at a relatively small number of horses and carriages, with the latter accounting for some small groups.

Artillery: a large crowd of horses, battery boxes, tractors and a number of cars.

Aerial reconnaissance 343

References Aviation

Transport: congestion of trucks in the parking lot and driving on adjacent roads; habitual raspolozheniya- settlements from large dirt roads and highways, near the railway station.

Motomehchasti: congestion of vehicles, tanks, armored vehicles and self-propelled artillery units, a significant group of people.

The troops in motion. The object of investigation is the way to the ground strip the actions of their military units and exposed flanks and at the borders of the band at least 60 km-with a view to early detection of the enemy columns, especially motomehvoysk.

Upon detection of the troops on the roads, aerial reconnaissance should identify and record:

  • a) time of observation;
  • b) the direction of motion;
  • c) the place of the head of the column;
  • g) the composition of the column {infantry, cavalry, artillery, mixed compound, motomehchasti);
  • d) the length of the section of the road occupied by the column;
  • e) the distance between the components of columns, if they exceed the normal;
  • f) the behavior of the troops while flying reconnaissance (camouflage, air defense).

 

Telltale signs of combat arms while driving

The infantry is given points - dark winter, summer or light gray. From the height of 1 000 m or more points merge and form a rectangle elongated; color - depending on the time of year; between the individual units are visible gaps.

A column of infantry characterized by a small number of riders and carriages.

Cavalry unmasks itself due to the large size of each rider, and partly horses of different colors (if the cavalry unit is not suited to horses). Visibility is better, the more the color of the soil of the road is different from the composition suit the horse.

From the height of 1 000-1 500 m easily distinguishable small group of riders (10-20 people), and in good visibility, and some ace-signs; from a height of more than 1 500 L column of cavalry is elongated band, for better or worse 8 observed depending on the color of soil road with a small gap between the divisions.

The bushes and overgrown forest difficult to detect the movement of the cavalry. In the forest, the cavalry impossible to detect if there is dust, which is especially unmasks it.

Artillery horse traction is detected by referring to the typical sleds, especially when there is shade.

In some cases, for the artillery can be taken rides pontoon troops.

Artillery on mechanical traction is detected harder than artillery horse traction, especially! if she has a special cover, masking tools.

Some guns are different from the height of 1 200-1 500 m.

The characteristic contours of the guns are stored and when viewed from a high altitude.

 

Intelligence Organization

Intelligence Organization in a meeting engagement means of military aviation is responsible for the corps headquarters.

Part of the aircraft it is advisable to make available to the divisions.

If this is not possible, the corps headquarters must take into account the requirements of the divisions for aerial reconnaissance.

 

The use of military aircraft in offensive combat

Tasks aerial reconnaissance. In an offensive battle on a military aircraft shall have the following tasks:

  • a) establish the configuration of the forward edge and the depth of the enemy defensive zone;
  • b) determine the nature of the enemy's defense engineering throughout the depth of defensive zone;
  • c) establish a second line of defense;
  • d) determine the location of reserves;
  • d) identify communication nodes;
  • e) bring their tanks to their targets;
  • g) ensure that the fight against the enemy artillery fire control their artillery;
  • h) monitor the battlefield, paying particular attention to the promotion of its troops and the enemy's;
  • i) to observe the enemy's rear.

 

These tasks are performed in a certain sequence partly in preparation for the offensive (tasks Nos. A, b, c, d, g, h, i), partly in the process of the attack (the problem of claims. C, d, e, f, g , h, i).

 

Moreover, before deciding troop aviation corps commander must ensure that the corps headquarters to check the aircraft of all types of data exploration.

 

Objects aerial reconnaissance:

  • a) engineering facilities throughout the depth of the defending defensive zone;
  • b) artillery firing positions;
  • c) reserves of the enemy;
  • d) tanks in the waiting position;
  • d) headquarters and communication centers;
  • e) the rear of the road;
  • g) crossing in the rear of the enemy troops.

 

Telltale signs

The band unmasked enemy defense trenches. In the open area continuous line of trenches are clearly visible from a height of 5 LLC m, and in the future

observed at a distance of 7-10 km. In winter, it increases the visibility of the trenches.

At the closed area (wooded and mountainous) trenches are clearly visible from a height of 2 000-3 000 m.

Individual components in the trenches there are only a height 800-1 200 m; the presence of people can be determined only in the event of significant movements in the trenches.

The main method of exploration - photography.

It is particularly important photographs defensive zone opponent. Photo maps reproduce so as to provide opportunities for them in the first artillery battalions and tank companies, operating in the direction of the main attack.

Photo maps should have a scale of 1: 5 000.

Exploration well disguised reserves may be carried out not only with the supervision of air, but with bombs and machine-gun fire, to force the enemy to find himself taken refuge.

Artillery positions are identified by a number of attributes, such as the hackneyed roads leading to the firing positions, paths, zadulnym cones (in the summer - white, winter - black), cutting in the forest (clearing fire).

 

Exploration teams (units Squadron)

Aerial and its characterization

Stereoscopic intelligence from the plane

Photoreading

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