Air Crash Investigation. Methods. Results.
Air Crash investigation is an important step to understanding rethinking of accidents related to aircraft and efforts to prevent or not prevent the recurrence of similar incidents in the future.
NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board), usually acts as the primary organization investigating the incident in its area of responsibility. However, by a decision of the United States Attorney General, these credentials can be transferred to other organizations, in cases where the prosecutor believes that the crash is related to the intentional offense.
However, even in such cases, the NTSB technically provides and provides information support for the investigation. This happened the last time during the investigation into the events 11 September 2001, when the investigation process was handed over to the United States Department of Justice.
The investigation of large-scale incidents in the United States usually begins with the creation of "rapid response team", which consists of experts in areas directly or indirectly related to the incident. Next, the number of companies and organizations that need to engage in the investigation. Council may appoint on relevant issues a public hearing.
At the end of the crash investigation process is published the official final report and the aviation industry is supplied with the safety recommendations, if necessary. The Council has no legal authority for the execution or implementation of its recommendations. This part of the security process involved the Federal Office of the United States civil aviation (FAA), the regulatory authorities in the field of transport on the regional and federal levels, as well as transport companies.
NTSB to investigate all incidents occurring in civil aviation has the highest priority in the United States. FAA also always involved in the investigation, but it is the main NTSB investigative body. In some cases, lack of resources forces the NTSB contact the FAA with a request for the collection of facts, evidence and information at the scene, and then your report is based on data that have been collected.
In some cases, the NTSB also helps in the investigation aviaktastrof happening outside of the United States of America. This usually happens when the incident happened to the aircraft that has registered in the United States of America or the American owners, with the aircraft in a foreign airspace if it installed components manufactured in the United States of America.
There are at least 12 basic methods that use investigative NTSB type Commission under Air Crash investigation:
1.Poisk the four corners of the plane (for the determination of: broke up in the air or on impact with the ground);
2.Poisk voice and flight recorders. Listening;
3.Proverka radio communication with the controller;
4.Svodka ATIS (thunderstorms, hail, microbursts);
5.Poisk and assembly of fragments (all systems);
6.Ispytanie similar models in similar conditions
7.Ispytaniya in the simulator;
8.Issledovanie personal affairs pilots psychological factors
9.Proverka passengers tickets and cargo waybills (the probability of a terrorist attack);
10.Opros survivors, eyewitnesses;
12.Prosmotr video crash.
The investigation of air accidents in a number of countries engaged in state organizations. The US has a National Committee for Transportation Safety (NTSB), which covers all kinds of transport. The NTSB has Office Safety, consisting of two departments to investigate air accidents and one of analysis and assistance. All reports and recommendations given by the operating organizations and companies, are made public. as there is a special decision of the Congress.
In England, the investigation of flight accidents civil helicopters conducting Committee to investigate flight accidents at the Ministry of Aviation. But the investigation of flight accidents are also involved in the company and the Aviation Institute. The overall coordination of the investigation of air accidents carries the Royal Aeronautical Institute (RAE) at Farnborough.
In Canada, the investigation of civil aviation flight accidents leading department RL.P composed of two divisions: the scientific and technological laboratories and offices operational statistics and planning. These units are conducting an investigation of flight accidents occurring on the lines. In addition, there are six regional offices
various parts of the country, the rest are investigating the accident flight. Airlines in Canada are also paying a lot of attention to safety and investigation of flight accidents. For example, the airline "Air Canada" has a group of 6 people., Which deals with flight safety. Sometimes to investigate flight accidents, a special commission appointed by the Ministry of Civil Aviation with the involvement of representatives of aviation companies and other organizations.
The main objectives, which are pursued in the investigation, determine the root causes of flight accidents: "What happened?", "Why happened?" Rather than "who is to blame?", "Who punished?" - To obtain information for the necessary decisions to prevent similar flight incident. One of the important tasks is to identify all the causes contributing to flight accidents as a flight accident is a consequence of many factors.
Leading the investigation of air accidents in the United States carried out by the safety investigation, which is responsible for the work safety. It investigates air accidents 18%. Teletypewriter center provides constant information on all flight accidents, preliminary information it receives through 6 hours after the occurrence of any flight accidents. For operational management is appointed senior in> flight accident investigation. It creates working groups and organizes, conducts and monitors for flight accident investigation, collect factual information, reports on the results of the investigation. In other cases, 82% investigate flight accidents are airbases and local experts.
Each airline has a detailed action plan in case of flight accidents with functional responsibilities of each expert, with an indication of what and in what form the report, and so on. D. Plans provides sohranenie- tape films of all records of communication, the work of the material, maintenance documentation and repair of helicopters and analysis of samples of fuels and lubricants from a warehouse and a filling means, and so on. d.
Initial measures in place flight accident receives chief of the nearest airport. These include: the challenge of health workers to provide assistance and rescue people; defense rests helicopter fire, protection from damage and displacement; preparation of the necessary information about the flight accident investigation to the Office of Aviation Safety; preserving traces of the incident on. land and local objects; registration information collected through witnesses and eyewitnesses.
The investigation of flight accidents lasts from several days to several months, the restriction on flight operations introduced only for the time necessary for the investigation of the wreckage at the site of the accident flight.
The persons participating in the investigation, must meet the following requirements: high qualification in the field, an analytical mind, interest in the case, the necessary diligence, patience. Qualification of specialists (pilots and engineers) must take into account the duration of operating experience, participation in the management of air traffic, and so on. etc. All the groups are working on a plan that is known to those skilled in advance. Group provided equipment, which allows: a study of the wreckage of the helicopter and the point of impact on the ground; roquet; photographs, the device provides all members of the group; the use of television and optical equipment, performance recording process of the investigation of flight accidents.
For investigation of flight accident with a small helicopter is operated for a long time in divisions, appointed a group of 4-5 people. from the local air base. The composition of this group at all air bases in advance is determined by management. If a new helicopter or a flight accident is severe, it appointed a special committee, consisting of several professional groups. At the head of each group put qualified professional. The group should include professionals operating organization, representatives of manufacturers, representatives of the flight crews and others.
The group is engaged in clarifying the mode of operation of flight crew operations, flight dynamics and flight path before the accident flight. This group defines the flight planning, action dispatching service, mass centering data, weather conditions, communications, air traffic control, status and operation of navigational aids, these intermediate landings, refueling, oil, liquids and gases, operating experience of flight, ground services , the last checks of the crew and the volume of checks, other details of the flight crew.
Group work with witnesses to find out everything that concerns flight accidents of all witnesses, and taken a written explanation with the signatures. Group flight recorders provides search, retention, reading, transcripts devices.
Group study explores the glider airframe design and management. The objectives of this group - to detect and identify the wreckage of the helicopter, to put their position on the scheme.
Drawing up a report on the accident
To improve the efficiency and completeness of the investigation of serious air accidents in some countries, such as Canada, create graphics investigate flight accidents.
This program provides a systematic study of all the circumstances of the accident flight, making the organization and eliminates the chance of misunderstanding and errors in the work of the commission, which operates in a challenging environment.
Documentation component in the investigation of air accidents, different in form and content in a variety of countries. In some countries, a standard form which facilitates the machining data on flight
accidents, reducing the time to complete the documentation and virtually guarantee the completeness of the collected material. Group prepares documentation: information about the flight accident report; factual information obtained during the investigation; reports, reports of groups that are part of the Commission; a report on the causes of the accident flight, the conclusions of which reasoned evidence and logically justified.
Applied to the report, all working documents to the superior court could review the validity of the conclusions of the Commission.
К рабочим документам относятся: схема распределения обломков; фотография места летного происшествия; записи радиообмена (результаты их обработки); записи самописцев о параметрах полета; расчеты массы и центровки; показания свидетелей; показания персонала управления воздушным движением; отчеты, отражающие состояние конструкции вертолета, его систем и агрегатов; данные о лабораторных испытаниях и исследованиях; отчет о работах по технической эксплуатации и ремонту; список невыполненных технических указаний; медицинский отчет о каждом пострадавшем человеке; донесение о- прыжках с парашютом, если экипаж выполнял испытательный полет; донесение об ущербе от летного .происшествия.
Report flight accident consists of five parts: a detailed description of the accident flight; damage as a result of a helicopter flight accident; a detailed description of the facts relating to a flight accident (in chronological order of presentation of all the factors contributing to the emergence of a flight accident); a detailed description of the causes and other factors contributed to the accident flight; recommendations to prevent new similar flight accidents.
If the Commission were groups, each of which is a report with all the spent working documents. The report of the group must contain: an impartial presentation of the facts relating to this flight accidents, analysis and logical conclusions based on the results of investigations.
The Board receives reports of all groups and uses them in the preparation of the report on the investigation of the accident flight. It must also submit a report on the dissenting members of the commission with the recommendations adopted by the majority of the committee members, with its conclusions and recommendations.
Classification of air accidents is different in different countries, but there are also international classifications. The following is an abbreviated, truncated, without the lower ranks, the classification of flight accidents, recommended by ICAO.
It is recommended to classify the incident flight, depending on: the type of flight; phases of flight; the type of accident; causes of the accident flight.
The following types of operations: on the international road; on the inner track; shuttle; non-scheduled; to perform work in the air; for business operations; training; control and testing; Private helicopter flights; other flights.
Phase of flight in which the circumstances arise, leading to a flight accident, the following:
static (between planting and the start of passenger traffic between the helicopter and final stop at the end of the flight and the landing of all passengers); during taxiing; during take-off; while en route; during landing.
Types of incidents indicate the circumstances in which they occur. TO. Типы происшествий указывают на обстоятельства, при которых они происходят. К. .ним относятся: потеря управляемости в полете, на земле или воде; касание земли концами лопастей несущего винта, гондолой или поплавком; разрушение шасси; грубая посадка с опущенным носом, или капотирование; приземление с недолетом до ВПП, посадка на край или за ее пределы, выкатывание за пределы ВПП; столкновение с поверхностью земли, воды, с предметами или птицами; разрушение планера на земле или в полете; отрыв агрегатов; пожар или взрыв на земле, в полете; посадка в целях предосторожности и вынужденная посадка; происшествия на земле, связанные с воздушной струей авиадвигателей; ранения людей воздушными винтами; ранение людей в полете; другие случаи; неустановленный тип происшествия.
Causes of air accidents can be linked to human error on the board and on the ground:
flight accidents, associated with the destruction of the structure of the helicopter are due to the destruction of nodes structure of (mechanical reasons (excludes cases where a failed engine, propellers, systems and equipment), the destruction of the chassis damage or engine failure, destruction of aircraft or the rotor caused by the failure or defects in different systems;
flight incidents connected with failures in devices and radio equipment, are divided into instruments to cause a denial of control engines, flight and navigation instruments, navigation equipment, radio communication equipment, lighting equipment.
Methods of investigation of flight accidents involves the following procedure: the wreckage, their location, and traces on the ground (trees, rocks, bushes, and so on. Методика расследования летных происшествий предусматривает следующий порядок: обломки, их расположение и следы на местности (деревьях, скалах, кустах и т. п.), тела и их останки сохраняются в первоначальном положении до тех пор, пока не будет произведено фотографирование, составлены необходимые схемы и описание; проверяется наличие всех деталей на месте падения, а при отсутствии хотя бы одной детали принимаются все необходимые меры к ее розыску; используются вещественные доказательства при проведении исследований; перед отправкой вещественных доказательств производится их тщательная упаковка; перед извлечением деталей производится обязательное фотографирование мест их расположения в груде обломков, прикладывается ярлык с необходимой информацией.
When investigating two methods: deductive (analysis version) and playback possible conditions of a flight accident. Correctly identify the destruction of the air can be by the nature of the spread of debris. If the destruction of the air was not, it developed some of the most plausible versions and conducted their examination. Unconvincing versions are not considered. The investigator should be precisely and accurately record all the data collected only reliable facts. However, the need to fix all the facts whether they are significant or such is not considered. Systematically and exhaustively researched all the facts; and circumstances, without the authority of the influence and pressure of other specialists.
Every system of the helicopter considered equally important, because without research beforehand is impossible to determine the involvement of any of the systems to the causes of flight accidents. Data for the study of a system can be use to prove the involvement of another flight accidents. Initially, stated the actual state of the wreckage, checked rupture and no burnt areas. All these facts show local events, but. eventually they all add and enhance the overall picture of actual events. At this stage, do not wait especially of any specific information, not to miss other, more important.
Laboratory studies are not limited to standard tests. Every effort is made to perform the test, fully reproduce the performance capabilities of the elements in unusual conditions. For details of the study are taken together with their associated components so. how often the cause of the defect are conjugate elements. Particular attention is paid to the search for defects that are a result of wear and tear, fatigue, structural, shortcomings, negligence during installation or operation. The most common cause of recurrent flight accidents is the failure of the power plant. Therefore, when otsutstviy- evidence about the cause of the accident is recommended that the flight be considered "guilty" until the engine until you have established evidence of his "innocence". If you set a subjective error, the investigation continues. In this case, look for why this was made possible subjective human error (bad design, disregard of the principles of engineering psychology, deficient or inadequate methods of operation), that is. e. trying to establish the circumstances that contribute to data errors.
In the study made a general inspection of the wreckage at the site in order to understand the circumstances of the flight pattern of the incident. This sets the point of initial impact, trace the path of the helicopter, looking for marks on the ground and local subjects. Determine the possible trajectory of the helicopter landing angle and speed, manageability and availability of structural failure before impact. Take pictures of the entire area with the general picture of debris and their status. Photographing is carried out from four directions. Photographed individual sections and structural elements, focusing on devices, position control knobs in the cockpit, setting up radio stations, installation of the autopilot, the position of fuel valves, switches, position control surfaces, trim settings, suspicious breakages or deflection, the position of the rotor blades, the position of the throttle in the cockpit and on the engine itself, damage from fire, traces on the ground in the fall, the position of seats and seat belts. Sometimes, during the investigation of flight accidents and used stereo aerial photography.
Charts the location of debris, goods, corpses and human beings, marks on the ground and points where photographed. Particular attention is drawn to the point of first contact with the ground, the length and depth of the slip traces, obstacles (trees, bushes, etc. D.), The position of the main fragments (fuselage), distance, direction, interposition of the main parts, the position of the other parts, the direction flight and wind.
Debris looking over the entire area. If it is large, it creates several search groups. Butts did not budge before photographing and drawing up schemes. Previous investigations of recent years has shown that with good organization of search is possible to collect up to 70% of debris, even when air accidents over the water surface, at depths up to 200 m. For the tests remain: the details have raised doubts about the quality of the casting, heat treatment, compliance with specifications, and so on. etc .; parts having structural and operating deficiencies; pipelines, the fittings control, with insufficient fastening parts subject to vibration; Broken oil- and fuel-seeing; presumably
Sometimes there is a special group to search for witnesses and record their required readings. Typically, the witness interviews were conducted in the form of an interview, while emphasizing the importance of the evidence, however, if they disagree with the results of inspection of the wreckage, you have to be very careful with the conclusions. From the staff of air traffic control, air traffic controller windows service, service operation and maintenance take affidavits. Sometimes witnesses made a demonstrative flight, so that they can compare their experience with flying a helicopter, flight accident victim.
The general principles at Equi testimony barely "following: collect them as soon as possible; talking on the spot where witnesses were at the time of the accident flight; talk without unauthorized persons; exclude witnesses conversations with other persons to record their statements. It is necessary to hear all the witnesses without exception. Questioning of witnesses is carried out in two steps: to hear their story all that they saw, ask questions to clarify certain clarifications. Record evidence is specially trained for this purpose people. Usually recorded: personal data, time and materials monitoring.
The last phase of the flight - this is the stage from the time when normal flight is terminated, until the inevitable flight accident becomes apparent.
Playing it requires coordination among many groups, but mainly is engaged in a group investigating issues related to the operation. It developed an analytical method that allows you to define the parameters of the flight path and the velocity vector at the time of the destruction of a helicopter in the air. The method is based on the solution of the equations of motion of debris, taking into account the wind and the atmospheric density gradient. It is necessary to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations of second order. Computer calculations take several minutes. During the initial data are taken only the distribution of the debris on the ground and information on the state of the atmosphere.
Widely used in the investigation of flight recorder. They agreed on the recording time. In the first stage it is read in the laboratory data. In the second stage being a senior expert analysis to investigate the accident flight, which will consult with experts in aerodynamics and Dr. When necessary, a graph of the total energy of the helicopter for information about changing the engine power and positioning controls. The findings of the data recorder are compared with findings from other sources; if they do not match, then the cause is determined.
Methods of reading and analysis of data recorders are improving all the time. Currently being developed automated methods for reading and correcting data recorders with automatic graphing and data analysis with the help of computers. You can create a system in which the output of the flight recorders after intermediate processing are input into the simulator to reproduce the conditions that led to the accident stucco. On-board voice recorders provide information for the investigation of air accidents, since they record information which are not transmitted by the crew by radio that there is on board, the measures taken for the prevention and elimination of emergency. In addition to the negotiations between the crew members and other voice recorder records sounds from switches, sound alarms, engine noise, which is very necessary investigative flight accident. By spectral analysis of sounds recorded with the recorder, you can determine the rotational speed of the turbine rotor, to compare these sounds with reference spectrograms obtained for this type of helicopter.
In the study of questions of technical operation of the most important are: the history of exploitation (plaque, the number of landings, and engines, systems and components of the helicopter) defects and corrective measures; implementation of improvements and work on the ballots; Careful adherence to the established system maintenance services operation, the definition of deviations and omissions; Poll technical and operating personnel on the methods of implementation and monitoring of works, inspections, and their volume.
In the study of the structure of the helicopter used the basic principle - as much as possible on the site of the accident flight to make the technical investigation, being careful not to damage the evidence. Individual parts are prepared and sent to special studies.
In place of a flight accident is necessary to determine where the damage occurred from hitting the ground, or it arose in flight, and to do this you need to carefully examine all the stains and particles from the wreckage. This is done before sending debris for analysis. A careful examination of stains and scratches provides important information especially when a flight accident occurred from a collision in the air. Laboratory analysis spot answers to his nature, and sometimes you can determine the direction of its propagation. By scratching, you can figure out the relative position of the bodies in contact, and set before or after hitting the ground failure occurred. Other characteristic sites can point to the nextbeats propellers, scratches from control cables t.-d. Well, all it is necessary to discover and explore.
When playing from the wreckage of the helicopter structure -can determine the cause of damage, do damage analysis. Typically, this method is applicable to the individual major nodes (blades, fuselage, control and so on. D.). In the analysis "it is of great importance to determine the nature and direction of -razrusheniya rivets, screws and bolts. "Recovery" design is photographed with her making sketches and notes for reports.
Recovery is done on a summer scene, and in the room. Before transporting the wreckage checked carefully scratches, breaks, and so on. D. On the large fragments are labeled. In the hangar to investigate -oblomkov can use frames, suspension parts, and so on top. D. We study the layout of the wreckage in the "structure" that makes it possible to determine the sequence of destruction, missing parts and helps in their quest.
On examination of the airframe, landing gear and control systems for external signs of destruction is determined by the character - before or after the impact.
Provided one initial failure, then the expert determines the cause of this failure (signs of fatigue fracture traces and flutter t.-d.). The fuselage trying to determine the actual load distribution, and analyze all the cracks in the casing. An important task is to determine the direction of cracks in the skin. If it is in the form of T, it is clear that the horizontal line appeared before the vertical. Try as much as possible to determine the direction of the forces that caused the separation of the chassis. Determine the impact on the status of all components and control units of various factors: the corners of the installation, compliance with its provisions, installation of levers in the cockpit, and so on. etc. Control levers, thrust inspected for bolts, lubrication, freedom of movement and so on. etc. Determined by the nature of possible destruction.
In the study of power plant study condition of the engine and all of its systems. The engine at the scene undergoes a visual inspection only. This focuses on the supply and regulation of bodies of fuel connections of fuel, oil, electrical and other systems. If you plan to leak oil or fuel, it is a color photograph. On-site is determined by the time of the destruction (before or after the event). Then the engine is sent for the necessary studies to base indicating the necessary tests or only disassembly and inspection. The signs of the destruction of the engine in flight are: the release of the outside parts of the compressor or turbine andmelting the aluminum parts of the compressor in the hot parts of the engine running.
Before submitting the engine is necessary to determine the presence of the fuel tap and record their position, the valve found in the wreckage. Inspect fuel tanks, piping and drainage holes. Attention is drawn to the possibility of clogging, wear, holes, leaks, corrosion and so on. D. Check the documents for fuel at the last zapravke- whether condensate water, filling the entire system is checked. Chemical analysis and smear soot.
Be sure to define the active and thrust engines on impact on records recorders or to the following factors: damage to the casing of the compressor and turbine; deformations of the blade; Gauges of the engine; the actions of the pilot before impact; units of fuel supply; speed at impact.
Before making a final conclusion explore engine and all of its units. We investigate the deformed metal of the combustion chambers and is determined by the temperature at the time of impact. In the context of the database is verified and functional tests are conducted every system or individual components and elements determined serviceability of systems and the necessary energy to the power stroke. The documentation of the study describes the structural condition of all devices and components, the presence of moving parts, the position of the switches and controls in the cabs, the testimony of all devices. As a result of the inspection is done the required number of photos.
If you suspect a fire is determined whether he was in the air or on the ground. If a fire has occurred in the air, it is possible to detect traces of purple color. We study the traces of soot on the casing, under the heads of the rivets and joints skin lapped on a surface covered with soot. Find traces of soot and fire, extending across the fracture line items, if the details of this are found in different places. In case of fire checks all flammable liquids pipelines for cracks, abrasions, and other signs of improper connection. Drawn spectrogram investigated soot. Wherever possible, the crew had any information about the fire, tried or not to apply the extinguishing agents, whether or not to operations provided instructions.
When the probability of an explosion establish the cause: a diversion or failure. Traces of an intentional explosion - siding torn up the outside surfaces of the cavities of the particles flying at a speed of 8-10 m / s peculiar smell for night operation and is equipped for instrument flying up.
In the US there are more than 60 Werth ports located on; roofs of buildings, but none is so high (at an altitude of 240 m) and in a densely populated area in the center Mayahettena. Landing pad it in 3 times more than Uolstrite. The cost of this port was Werth 800 thousand. USD.
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