QI-23 (on behalf of the chief designers Volkov and Yartsev, the index represents the caliber in millimeters) Auto Aviation a gunDeveloped by Soviet designers in 1940g. The principle of operation is based on a gun powder gases energy, the essence of which is that parallel to the barrel tube, which is connected thereto closer to the outlet of the barrel.
In the tube is a piston that is driven during the shot, it happens this way: during a shot ignited the powder in the pocket, greatly expanded by this he pushes the bullet (in this case the shell) inside the barrel, at a certain point there is a connection to the the very parallel to the tube, which directs part of the gas under pressure. These gases are pushing piston, which in turn opens the bore, releasing the sleeve, and takes a new cartridge. According to this principle operates most of the automatic weapons.
But back to the load cell-23. The need to develop it aviation weapons, rather than the use of conventional guns, as it was in the First World War, became apparent with the increase of security of both air and ground targets, as well as increasing the speed of flight. For aircraft weapons priorities are somewhat different parameters than for a conventional small arms.
The most important parameter in determining the efficiency of aviation instruments, is the mass of second volley, simply put, the weight of all that flies out of the barrel of gun (whether gun or machine gun) for 1 second. This option is absorbed and rate, and caliber, because with increasing caliber, mass of the charge is also increased, and with the increasing rate of a large number of charges fired. Accordingly, the greater the mass of the second volley, the more firepower has a gun. Cannon QI-23 designed specifically for parallel designs the Il-2And are known to attack aircraft - airplanes, sowing death and destruction in the first place on the ground and do not require such high performance characteristics as a fighter.
This largely determined the characteristics of the load cell-23. The gun came out very strong (weight-second salvo was 2kg, for comparison, 20mm gun ShVAK did not exceed 1.3kg) with high accuracy (this option is determined by the initial velocity of the projectile, again was 920m / s, against 815m / s from gun ShVAK also this characteristic affects the armor penetration). In addition, the effectiveness of high-explosive shells-23 load cells was more than two times higher than that of ShVAK (not for nothing that the German pilots tried not to fall into the scope of Ilam, otherwise the outcome was pretty sad for them).
However, had the gun and disadvantages such as a large mass (66kg against 40-45kg have ShVAK) large size (2150mm against 1600-2000 have ShVAK guns) as well as more effective and less resources. For these reasons, almost all the fighters of the USSR until the end of the war had on his arms less than perfect ShVAK gun, and only a few attempts were made to apply the load cell-23, however, these attempts have been unsuccessful. But after the installation of the IL-2, QI-23 has proved an excellent instrument and a bad reputation in land forces of Germany.
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