PROGRAMME OF AVIATION SECURITY
aviation security program should include procedures for the effective use of safety management in the operation of aircraft. The basis of the program is a preventative efforts to detect and eliminate hazards.
Under the provisions governing all aspects of international air transport is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed in 1944 52 countries, the delegates gathered in Chicago (the Chicago Convention). Under the Convention, a permanent body was established - the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). At the time of the convention ratified by more than 190 States which are members of the ICAO.
To ensure the safety, regularity and efficiency of air transport ICAO adopted 18 Annexes to the Chicago Convention. This specification, known as Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs). Applications cover the entire spectrum of civil aviation activities.
The need for international standards defined by:
- the interdependence of international aviation; operational safety; Confidence States uniformity performance standard;
- the practice; protection against the spread of unsafe practices;
- the need to ensure an adequate level of safety.
International standards are accepted and implemented by States - ICAO members as a minimum requirement to ensure the safety of international air transport.
Requirements ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices are implemented by States:
- development of national aviation laws and regulations;
- creating a system of state regulation of aviation;
- State education department of civil aviation, responsible for compliance with safety standards;
- certification of operators, all the subjects and objects of civil aviation;
- state supervision over compliance with the Standards.
Uniform application of the rules, procedures and practices in the performance of Sun Flight is a vital component of aviation safety. Therefore, states must harmonize their national regulations with ICAO standards and recommended practices.
In accordance with article 26 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation State, within whose territory the AP is required to institute an inquiry into the circumstances of his. This undertaking is feasible only if there is a proper investigation of the AP legislation.
Authority according to the AP investigation should be completely objective and impartial. It is necessary to form so that he could withstand political or other interference or pressure. It is desirable that such a body be independent of the HA administration and reports directly to the government or parliament. He must determine the causes of the AP and to formulate safety recommendations. However, the responsibility for the implementation of safety recommendations should be borne by the administration of HA.
Authorities according to the AP investigation should be legislatively granted prompt and unrestricted access to all information relevant to the case, without any prior coordination with the judicial authorities or other agencies. The legislative document may provide a ban on the provision of transparency on individual documents and information obtained during the investigation. These materials are included in the final report only if it concerns the AP analysis. Parts of the records not relevant to the analysis, are not subject to publicity.
This point is very important because, for example, the cockpit voice recorder, provided voluntarily by the parties, the respondents in the course of the investigation, can be used improperly to further disciplinary, civil, administrative or criminal consideration. In addition, this information will not be communicated to persons to continue leading the investigation.
Air Code of Ukraine - the main document, which establishes the basic principles and norms of the Civil Aviation of Ukraine activity. The current Air Code to improve safety established mandatory requirements for the certification of the sun, the suitability of aerodromes and their equipment. Legislated more stringent than in the previous Code of the USSR, the procedure for registering aircraft airfields and their admission to operation. The regulatory framework, which complements the Air Code includes standards of airworthiness of civil aircraft serviceability civil aerodromes, Sun training and certification rules, airports and routes, the provisions on the classification of the flight, dispatch, technical staff and other professionals. Specific provisions on the issues of safety and security regulation are displayed in the respective government programs.
Currently, a strategic action plan to promote the safety, security and efficiency of international civil aviation. The strategic plan is consistent with the principles of the Convention GSAO the harmonious development of international civil aviation on a national and regional basis. To implement this plan, you must:
- 1) encourage States to a wide (global) implementation of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices;
- 2) to develop and adopt new or improve existing standards, recommended practices and related documents to meet the ever changing needs of international civil aviation;
- 3) to strengthen the legislative framework of the management of international civil aviation, and developing new tools to encourage States to ratify existing legal instruments;
- 4) guarantee the timeliness, coordination and implementation of regional air navigation plans and the legislative framework for the efficient implementation of new air navigation systems;
- 5) promptly adhere to the main requirements of the safe and efficient development of civil aviation;
- 6) to ensure consistent and effective management of economic regulation of international air transport;
- 7) promote the mobilization of human, technical and financial resources for the development of civil aviation;
- 8) to ensure the greatest possible effectiveness of ICAO action in achieving the goals mentioned.
Each of these products provides certain key activities and expected results. For example, position 5 components are:
- 5.1) implementation of Global Aviation Safety Plan, which includes:
- 5.1.1) co-ordination between public authorities and the industry to guarantee the reduction of the accident rate in the world;
- 5.1.2) safety program and the human factor;
- 5.1.3) safety program in a rugged terrain;
- 5.1.4) position to respond to the identified violations of safety standards;
- 5.2) monitoring of volcanic activity for the purposes of international aviation;
- 5.3) security of airports, air navigation facilities and services;
- 5.4) the implementation of environment protection;
- 5.5) overload warning airports and airspace (limitation of airport capacity and airspace);
- 5.6) implementation of the facilitation program;
- 5.7) emergency plan of action in an emergency, and others.
In each country, responsible for the safety of air transportation is the State Aviation Administration. It develops and implements methods and security procedures for a wide range of activities carried out within the national aviation system, in traffic control systems, aircraft certification and others.
Consider the strategic objectives of the Action Plan.
1. Safety. After a long and sustained period of improvement of the safety assurance system accident stabilized at a low level and remained relatively unchanged over the past years 20. It also points to possible complications in further reducing the accident rate. Commission of the White House on the security and safety of February 1997 It invited the national goal - to reduce the incidence of accidents at 80% for the next 10 years. To achieve this, the research conducted in the field of security. Efforts are directed to support the three key aspects of which are:
- identification of deviations in the air transport system and risk management - the recognition of hidden potential dangers (threats) and keeping them in practice on the basis of monitoring; urgent operational and technical interventions and solutions at the local, national and international levels;
- Accident prevention - detection of dangerous abnormalities in the activity of the air transport system, assessing their hazards and the development of effective measures to reduce accidents in civil aviation;
- mitigation of accidents - reduce damage in the event of an accident.
2. Aviation security. Recent developments in the world of civil aviation (11.09.2001 g) focused attention on the negative destructive potential terrorist acts. Historically, transportation has always been among the most frequent objectives of terrorist attacks. As the nature of threats is constantly changing, the effectiveness of the security program (such as Aviation Security) requires continuous reassessment. In the field of aviation security are three key aspects:
- the creation of knowledge bases and risk management;
- prevention of acts of unlawful interference;
- mitigating the effects of acts of unlawful interference.
3. The effectiveness of the air transport system.
The focus of this goal lies in the immediate and long-term modernization and evolution of the US, which should meet the needs of consumers. Modernization envisages the introduction of new technologies and the use of related operational practices. Virtually all elements of programs that are aimed at achieving efficiency US, must be balanced with programs that focus on aviation safety, to ensure the selection of alternatives in the best interests of society. Key in the field of aviation security are:
- defining the system architecture and the directions of its development;
- implementation of a system architecture;
- support action to ensure air traffic.
4. Environmental Safety. Evidence of this problem is well recognized. Every experienced traveler informed about the many operational constraints of airports, which are determined by the adverse effect of GA on society, first of all the noise. Several European airports have problems with their limited capacity due to unfavorable conditions (noise) around them. In the coming 5- 10 years, it is expected that this issue will be relevanttion even for the most intense 20 EU airports. Although the introduction of aircraft with the characteristics of the noise, the relevant regulations of Chapter 3 volume 1 16 Annexes to the ICAO Convention, is almost complete, public complaints, living in the vicinity of airports, and continues to limit the expansion or construction of new aircraft systems in many world airlines. The introduction of the standards of Chapter 4 volume 1 16 Applications (approved 33-th ICAO Assembly in the city of 2002) should help to regulate the problem, but the predicted increase in traffic can snivelirovat effect of the introduction of aircraft in operation according to the head of 4 standards. It is envisaged that the predicted growth of air services will determine the subsequent increase in the degree of noise impact on society.
Consistent with these results, and air pollution due to emission aircraft engines. on the Committee for Environmental Protection from the effects of aviation (CAEP) at ICAO is constantly concerned about the quality of local air pollution (in the vicinity of airports) and its global changes . In particular, the Kyoto Protocol
on Climate Change (1992 g) draws attention to the aviation emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Special Report on the impact of aviation on the global atmosphere, published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in April 1999 city, indicates that the aircraft is destroyed under the influence of ozone (as a result of emissions of nitrogen oxides) produced acid rain, and there are other global implications . It was also found potential impact of supersonic aircraft (including those granted in implementation of which is expected in the coming years 10-15) on stratospheric ozone.
In the field of environmental safety main objectives are:
- reduction of local air pollution - reducing emissions of pollutants that endanger public health and of the environment;
- reduction in the emission of pollutants that affect the global climate and stratospheric ozone - reducing pollution caused by emissions primarily of nitrogen oxides;
- reduce the impact of aircraft noise - reducing noise levels around airports and in other places where aircraft noise is unfavorable for the environment.
It is important to understand the role of new technologies in the US modernized and adapted to improve the efficiency and security. Prescription FAA № 8040.4 , issued June 28 1998, at introducing the practice of risk management policy, requiring all departments FAA to develop and implement a risk management program in accordance with the activities of these units. The FAA will use formal and documented decision-making processes, in order to adresovyvat risks to the consequences of these decisions for the entire life cycle.
risk management program is supported by a structural engineering system, a separate specialization which is to support the security system. The program is a complex engineering and management principles, criteria and control methods (optimization) security. The purpose of the security system is to optimize the security on the basis of identification of all infringing its risks, their limitation and control of organizational, structural and operational methods.
The security system is based on the following principles:
- 1) embedded in it or in its US gradually subsystem and cost-effective manner;
- 2) risks associated with the system, all the time are identified, observed, evaluated and limited to acceptable risk values;
- 3) efforts aimed at ensuring the safety, must be consistent with the best practices of security;
- 4) statistics safety assessment is constantly discussed, analyzed and projected;
- 5) the most important information and individual data security is documented as a "learned safety" and are available to the public through a variety of information sources;
- 6) risks are observed throughout the system life cycle; to simplify and improve the reliability of the observation is carried out decomposition of the life cycle;
- 7) to the design requirements, configuration and purpose of the system is constantly changing, but so that the level of risk was acceptable and consistent with the requirements.
It proposed five phases of risk management, each of which takes into account the principles of security:
- Planning - the risk management process is predetermined in advance and documented in the plans, which include an acceptable risk criteria;
- Hazard identification - the identification and assessment of hazards (threats) plans to determine the hazard risks associated with the system (objects, processes);
- Analysis - Risks are characterized in accordance with the seriousness of their consequences, and the reliability of their education;
- comparative assessment of safety - safety is determined by matching the eligibility criteria set out in the planning; assessment results are sent in a form adapted to the decision;
- decision - performed a comparative evaluation of the hazards of different options.
At the heart of risk management are of quantitative and qualitative analysis, but the advantage provided quantitative estimates. As a means of justification solutions used to compare (the comparator) risk assessment of the dangers.
Control of the system is implemented and documented in the structure of the process control system throughout its life cycle. Thus, the security system - a single element management system processes.
At the global level, such a process is the functioning of US throughout its life cycle.
It can be argued that the requirement of the FAA  is a security system integration tool in the US life cycle. Integration is achieved by using the steps and tools of risk management system - assessment of operational safety (Operational Safety Assessments); operational safety (Operational Safety Requirements); comparative assessment of hazards (Comparative Safety Assessments); preliminary analysishazards (Preliminary Hazard Analyses); hazard analysis subsystem (Subsystem Hazard Analyses); hazard analysis system (System Hazard Analyses); hazard analysis operation and maintenance (Operation and Support Hazard Analyses);
monitoring of hazards and risks permission problems (Hazard Tracking and Risk Resolution), and others. Each of the steps and tools takes its place in the life cycle of the system as a whole or an individual process.
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