The helicopter - is an art, like any other type of human creativity.
The talent, inspiration, enlightenment. words with which we meet in describing the activities of poets, writers, as well as concepts such as mastery of the Executive (when it comes to, for example, about the musician), can equally be applied to the engineering profession.
The great Leonardo da Vinci saw himself first of all as an engineer.
Art can not be divided into more complex or less complex types, but each species has its own laws of art skills, and anyone who wished to do creative work, shall know them. There is much talk about intuition. Yes, it exists. Let's face it, today we can not justify the nature of this phenomenon, but this property is intuition or deny the ability of foresight is impossible. Too convincing examples of brilliant engineering activities in almost all fields of technology.
Just as a man is taught the art of dance or play the violin, you can teach art and design. Our design offices there is a concept: the designer from God. It is far from the truth, and I know - a man loves his job, his confession.
Getting started on the project, the designer must know the technology decision-making.
Try to articulate to yourself (and others) answers to the questions in the following sequence:
- - Goals,
- - tasks,
- - Methods.
From definition to formulate answers for the goals and objectives depends primarily on business success and efficiency of your operations.
The concept of "purpose of work" is headed by a hierarchical pyramid sequence. The designated purpose you definitely should focus on the end result. It goes without saying that any operation can comprise series circuit purposes as arbitrarily detailed, but this does not alter the general approach.
Breaking the process into successive stages is very important for novice designers because it allows you to focus on finding solutions and to discipline their thinking. The ability to break down the process comes with experience: there is no and can not be clear recommendations.
Aircraft production because of its specificity requires high capital costs, but they are only 20-30% of total costs, which must be provided, taking into account the operation, maintaining the necessary level of safety, repair, etc., therefore necessarily be determined the cost of maintaining the fleet of aircraft for the entire life cycle.
Modern airline or large consumers, such as the Air Force of the country in future scenarios try to take into account the life cycle of all the possible conflicts that will inevitably affect the cost ua: inflation, downtime, loss of part of the fleet of aircraft, a possible rise in the cost of spare parts, and much more. The more accurate and foresight will be performed this work, the better.
Wherever used aircraft, military or civilian field, work performed by it, is estimated at a cost that society needs to pay. And if society is reconciled with the need to pay for the work carried out by aviation, it does not mean that it is ready to pay any price. That market conditions provide an opportunity to the public "to put a bridle" the rise in prices.
Competitiveness - The main problem to be solved in any design something new.
In aviation, most of the cost criterion is hours of operation of the aircraft. Consequently, the cheaper your design than the more durable it is, the less the complexity of its service, the lower the costs for the staff, so it is more profitable.
Activities carried out during the hours of operation of aircraft, considered to be the hourly output.
The value of absolutely all costs that the operator is forced to carry the aircraft (operating costs, fuel costs, liquids and gases, airport services, the cost of administration and personnel, insurance, etc.) referred to the operation and one hour divided by output per hour, It gives us the economic characteristics of the work done. Comparison of these characteristics in alternative solutions to the same problem will judge the economic efficiency.
Economic efficiency often underlies the motivations of business. This approach will inevitably prevail in the military sphere.
In recent years 50 in domestic and foreign private practice offers many performance criteria. These criteria should be comfortable and use when evaluating various alternative solutions to the same problem.
Transport efficiency JIA based on a comparison of the available capacity with the cost of mass J1A and fuel efficiency of the engine:
Этот критерий зависит от технических показателей ЛА, таких как весовая отдача, аэродинамическое качество, удельный расход топлива двигателей.
The production efficiency of the helicopter reflects its excellence as an object of industrial production and depends on the designs of such properties as workability, interchangeability, the level of normalization, etc.
Operational efficiency (system-maintenance) helicopter reflects its excellence as an object of technical operation. It depends on the characteristics such as durability, reliability, maintainability and the like helicopters
Technical efficiency is estimated as the cost of the helicopter ton-kilometers:
Target efficiency reflects the extent to which the characteristics of the helicopter set requirements for speed, range, load capacity, degree of comfort, etc. This kind of efficiency is reflected in the value of science-based transportation tariffs.
Capital intensity determines the value of helicopters and associated facilities needed to perform at a certain time a given volume of traffic, ceteris paribus.
Cost-effectiveness - A multi-faceted criteria. It is determined by comparing the costs with the economic benefit received.
The process of designing JIA, including helicopters, consists of the following stages: development of tactical and technical requirements, development of preliminary design (design specification), schematic design, layout, layout and coordination, development of technical specifications for the design, detailed design.
The entire design process is accompanied by JIA weight calculations from forecasts weight units at the stage of preliminary design to the meticulous account of all the costs of mass at the detailed design.
Weight Culture - The immutable law of any successful design office working.
Analysis of price data indicates that at high operating culture more profitable to create more costly, but it is in a weight ratio in the operation of the helicopter. In this connection it is necessary to be critical of the traditional technological solutions and the use-proven, but outdated design solutions.
Unlike other JIA, helicopters from the total weight of the unit, the resource is determined by fatigue strength, is more than half empty weight of the helicopter. Therefore, the most important task facing the designer of helicopters, is to provide a resource under the terms of endurance. Those. the fatigue strength of the structure of the helicopter and its components under the influence of repeated loads in operation during certain hours (assigned resource) must ensure that no occurrence of fatigue damage or destruction, which can directly lead to a catastrophic situation. This requirement is in addition to the creation of an appropriate design of the helicopter and its units shall be provided production and manufacturing processes, and repair, maintenance and observance of the rules and conditions.
Manufacturing processes of the structural elements of the helicopter must be stable and ensure the consistency of characteristics of parts and assemblies that affect their performance within the established resources and service life in the anticipated operating conditions.
During the operation should be carried out systematic monitoring of the state of design, providing identification of the factors that lead to an unacceptable reduction in the fatigue strength of the structure (corrosion, wear and tear, accidental damage).
Materials for production units should be selected taking into account the expected operating conditions. The mechanical, physical and other properties of the selected materials must comply with the standards, regulations, specifications and within the limits provided in the anticipated operating conditions, the reliability of the components and structural elements for their assigned resources, and life. This should be confirmed by testing, and (or) the available experience in the design and operation.
Each part of the structure must be adequately protected from damage or loss of strength in service due to any reason, including weather conditions, corrosion and abrasion. The design of the device shall be provided for ventilation and drainage where necessary to prevent the accumulation of flammable, toxic or corrosive liquids.
Design of the unit should begin with the formation of the power circuit design unit from exposure to given external loads. Practice shows that the simpler, more concise looks power circuit, the more successful and profitable in the weight ratio of the design will be implemented.
The main loading conditions that determine the strength of the helicopter and its major components are formulated in the airworthiness standards civilian rotary-wing aircraft for the anticipated operating conditions, and includes standards (requirements), the recommendations and supporting information.
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