One of the most important conditions for successful operation of combat aircraft is a well-developed network of airfields.
In wartime, in a war zone to conduct flight operations organized temporary airfields.
Temporary airfields have no specially constructed facilities.
Airfields called the action, if they are placed air units. Otherwise, they are invalid or spare.
Aerodrome; allowing in size only occasionally a summer job or a single aircraft. regardless of size, used only for occasional landings and takeoffs single aircraft, called the landing pad.
Depending on the nature of the combat use of airfields (pads) are divided into advanced and rear.
Called advanced airfields (area), from which directly produces combat aircraft sorties. They are located as close as possible to the front depending on the situation (genus and species of aviation, its combat missions, terrain, presence of Railways, communications and so on. D.).
Advanced airfields depending on their values are divided into primary and secondary.
The main airport is the technical foundation for the conduct of flight operations or part of the connection. At the same time the airport are usually located the headquarters of the Service and all.
Auxiliary airfields in varying degrees, contribute to the combat aircraft.
The auxiliary airfields are: a) replacement, which carried out the preparatory work for the case of transition from the main air units at airfields danger of air attacks (in establishing the location of this part of the enemy), and the destruction of combat airfields; b) false, organized to mask the true; false airfields can often serve as a spare.
Tyl called airfields (platform) intended for use in aviation rest in between flight combat operation, to view and repair of materiel.
Rear airfields are located at a distance, providing them from flying fighter aircraft of the enemy.
Several airfields occupied aircraft part or compound false and alternate aerodromes, dissociating site (for rapid expansion in the event of a bombing and chemical attack), the communication system and surveillance, checkpoints, lighting equipment for night operations and air defense form airfield node.
Removing airports from each other should not be less than 10 km.
Basic requirements for the aerodrome
1.Aviation Branch. According to its position of military aviation airfields must meet the following conditions:
a) to be far beyond the reach of artillery fire of the enemy;
b) to have the shortest possible line of communication with the serving military units and even better - to avoid personal communication and aviation military commanders and their staffs;
c) to ensure the best conditions for the placement of the material and the production of small repairs;
d) have a good way for the transport of all necessary;
d) to provide the most favorable conditions for recreation personnel;
e) have a good camouflage;
g) make it possible to organize the direct defense of both the air and on the ground the enemy.
Commanders and staffs are at the airport, where work has been fighting. Landing pads at the division headquarters are in case you need personal contact with the crew commander of a division or the head of his
Staff. Near the headquarters of parts for direct communication with them are equipped with seating areas, designed to receive and the work of individual aircraft.
Communication with client aviation airfields part of combined arms staffs carried out by means of the latter.
The main airport and the headquarters of military units are connected to a wire connection.
2.Army reconnaissance aircraft. Working conditions of army reconnaissance aviation special requirements for aerodromes will be charged. In case of movement of a fast field staff served task force often have to resort to work with the best airport, what would be the airport of any part of the military aviation.
3.Fighter aircraft. Army fighter aircraft, in addition to its main airports, should be widely used all the available network of airfields and military platforms district. This ensures a successful struggle for supremacy in the air, allowing you to quickly focus fighters in different parts of the front.
- The use of fighter aircraft requires above all a well-established connection, why airfields fighter should have a direct wire or radio communication with the command, the disposal of which they are located, as well as staffs (aerodromes) aircraft for other purposes, with paragraphs AD and near located the main post aeronautical communications and surveillance.
4.Assault and bombers placed on the ground according to the overall tactical situation.
The need for frequent re-flown approach requires advanced airfields to the front line with a wide dispersal squadrons (groups) on certain airfields.
5.The zone of military airfields and light combat aircraft. The zone of military aviation airfields cover band, the cutting edge is removed from the line of contact with the enemy on 10-20 km, and the rear edge on 30-50 km. Typically, the main part of military aviation airports are located at a depth of 1-1% of transitions from the enemy, and landing pads are pushed forward, l the possibility of a parking lot close to the headquarters of corps and divisions.
The front edge of the terminal area of light combat aircraft passes in 100 km from the line of contact with the enemy. When the forward basing location airfields of combat light aircraft will strip away 100do200ya \ m in depth, and at airfields located on the rear of the 200 km and deeper.
The defense of the airfield of enemy ground
The airfield can threaten the enemy ground troops following: a) mechanized parts; b) the cavalry; c) units of paratroopers; d) sabotage groups.
Given that the actions of large enemy forces equally threatened as the airfields and the entire rear of the tactical and operational forces, defense airfields can not be viewed in isolation from the common defense of all the rear area.
Responsible for organizing the defense of the troop commander of the rear area of a compound, which belongs to the rear area; defense organization within the army rear, respectively, of its division is responsible directly to the headquarters of the army chiefs of the respective rear or organs in the area.
If the defense of the home front based on the importance of an object, and the defense is organized along the lines leading out to a particular object or group of them. In this widely used topographic terrain and strengthening their engineering practice, and sometimes by chemical means of struggle (the device blockages, spotted, dragon teeth, trenches, minefields and preparation for chemical contamination) using locally available tools and labor.
In this area and rear air connections is prepared to defend certain areas and regions, indicate the respective order or order of the Head, organizing common defense and organize the defense in accordance with statutory provisions, the aircraft must be ready for action from the air.
Organization PVHO airport
In the struggle for supremacy in the air Force will seek to destroy enemy aircraft at its airfields during preparation for a combat flight, relax or stay after the task, cause the greatest damage to personnel and result in improper condition airfield.
Relative broad objectives can be used to attack any type of aircraft from various heights.
Assault aircraft can perform all three asked, using: a) machine-gun fire, fragmentation and incendiary bombs to destroy the material part; b) high-explosive bombs caliber moderated by tenths of a second to several hours to destroy the airfield; c) machine-gun fire, small and OS fragmentation bombs to destroy the personnel.
Bombers operating throughout the area airfield, destroying the airfield and hitting everything on the airfield. Its main tool is the bomb of all types and calibres.
Possibility of attacks on airfields of different types of aircraft with the action at different heights and with different weapons makes it necessary to use all means to defend PVHO.
Aviation. To cover the location of a large compound of various kinds of aviation on the airfield site is organized guarding their own means of aviation connections, and can also be isolated and fighter units. In the latter case, the compounds bind aviation airfields airfield fighter units.
Anti-aircraft artillery. Defence airfields from enemy aircraft, to attack from high altitudes (over 1 000), can be carried out with the help of anti-aircraft artillery.
For a successful defense of the aerodrome is required allocation of at least one anti-aircraft artillery battalion (3-4 battery). The idea of defense is to reaching the target enemy aircraft, entering the zone firing anti-aircraft artillery, immediately got on the possible approaches for two-layer fire (fire 2 batteries), and closer to the center, fired three, four-fire (3-4 battery).
At insufficiency of flak and the inability to cover the entire airfield node primarily covered the main airfield.
Anti-aircraft guns. In the defense of the airfield anti-aircraft machine guns are placed in groups of at least two guns. Machine-gun defense pursues the following objectives: a) to prevent the planes approach the vulnerable part of the aerodrome, and b) to prevent impunity shelling or bombardment target.
Enemy aircraft can approach the target from either side, but their approach is most likely from the private or rough terrain. Therefore, the machine-gun groups are arranged to bombard the enemy planes, from whatever side they may have appeared; on the most probable directions fire machine gun groups must be sealed by reacting at least two groups; above the target (vulnerable area) machine-gun fire groups should be the most dense, because there are machine guns have the greatest possibility of defeat.
The most expedient to put the guns on the high ground (buildings, trees), eliminating the dead space inherent in installing them directly on the ground. To set the guns on buildings and trees to prepare appropriate grounds, allowing to conduct circular firing.
To combat with the enemy can be brought abeyance turret guns of aircraft, and they entrusted the defense of the airfield.
Posts aeronautical communications and surveillance. Timely warning airfields to attack enemy aircraft provided air stations network communications and surveillance combined arms and rear organs located on the outer ring of the airfield away 15-20 km.
Posts aviation units and formations are part of the overall air defense system of the area and are serving on a common basis.
In the presence of anti-aircraft artillery, covering the airport, aeronautical service stations may be assigned to observation posts anti-aircraft batteries. Each battery has identified three observation posts that are continuously monitoring the air situation. To prevent the airfield command post commander of the division, and if possible, each battery should have a connection to the central station of the airfield.
Warning airfield carried out and with the help of shots to the battery.
Masking. Masking airfields falls into obscurity: a) the airfield; b) materiel; c) personnel; g) aerodrome signs of life.
Masking existing airfields complemented device false airfields.
To hide the airfield airfield widely used: field decoration and paint-camouflage - these tools allow you to make the current airfield view the site, it is unsuitable for missions (pitted ditches, wells, a fake easily movable structures: stacks, stacks, stumps, etc. Etc. .); winter - sweeping tracks left by ski planes.
Masking materiel (aircraft) can be achieved using natural shelter (trees, shrubs, terrain), camouflage coloring planes under the protective paint tone areas (Meadow green, yellow on peske- winter - white, and so on. D.) and finally, by special coatings (masksetey). It is particularly important to shelter shiny parts that are most give the plane.
Masking personnel located outside the airport, much difficulty is not as easy to find around the airport any natural closure. It is much harder to disguise personnel at the airport. To do this, take each division team Rank, possibly sheltered (trees, bushes, etc. N.). If no such shelter, they create them artificially.
To hide the signs of life the airfield must be give it a site unsuitable for flying, as described above. It is particularly important to eliminate the traces at the airport by crutches and mask the access roads to the airport.
Likewise, you need to mask the firing point air defense facilities outside the airport personnel and logistical institutionsaerodrome (supplies of fuel, lubricating, bombs, vehicles and so on. n.). Masking these objects does not represent great difficulties, since they are relatively small?! they can always be placed in hidden places.
Selection and preparation of airfields and landing strips
Selection and preparation of airfields and landing strips for light military th Army combat aviation in most cases between aviation and the land forces are the responsibility of the command of the troops.
Executive in charge of the selection of advanced airfields and landing strips will be the headquarters of combined arms, in cooperation with whom or in which the aircraft operates.
Technical artists will be one of the commanders of Staff or the commander of the engineering troops of the connection.
Preparation airfields made sapper units of the compound using military force as a working and working parts or locals.
Designated aerodromes are selected in advance by the military-geographical and airbrush descriptions of the area and large-scale charts. Then specify map data and intelligence to describe the airbrush aircraft, and for the final solution of the question of the suitability of the site for the airport location expelled special reconnaissance group.
Requirements for Aerodrome
To the airfield to meet the following general requirements:
a) of sufficient size;
b) sufficient training aerodrome surface;
c) availability, approaches from the air in the direction of landing or take-off, ie. e. the absence of any vertical obstacles (houses, trees, tall smokestacks and m. p.) on the path of the aircraft, making the landing or taking off.
The direction of take-off and landing depend on wind direction. For each area there are prevailing winds (in the direction of repetitive), which should be considered when choosing the airfield.
Linear dimensions airfields. Linear dimensions airports depend on the number and type of aircraft and nature of flight operations and aircraft parts, using the aerodrome or landing area.
Relief. The surface of the airport should be as horizontal. Admitted fades, without steps and jumps, ramps 0,01-0,02 100 totaling not less than m; more frequent and abrupt changes in the surface are dangerous at high speed mileage aircraft.
Local obstacles (bumps, depressions, ditches, boundaries, grooves, bumps, pits, some stones, shrubs, stumps, poles) should be eliminated.
It is advisable to avoid depressions and hollows for. the aerodrome (groundwater).
The soil and vegetation. The soil must be firm but elastic and absorbs moisture.
Unsuitable: swampy and heavily rocky.
Undesirable: sandy and clayey soil.
Desirable: meadow areas with sandy and podzolic soil, with a grassy, kornevistym vegetation, protecting it from erosion, and liquefaction of the formation of dust, but does not prevent their density and height of the aircraft. You can use the grain fields with the removal of the loaves, reaching a height of 30 cm, and the corresponding density of the soil.
The airfield should not be filled with water turn into swamp (atmospheric and groundwater). The general condition of the PA cover <5ochey space field should allow the airport to promote polutoratonnogo laden car at a speed of 30- 40 km per hour. Crawler Tractor must pass without rainfall the soil.
In winter, the airfield must have a flat surface, with little snow cover for the production of takeoff and landing on wheels or more thick and smooth without snow drifts for aircraft on skis. In the winter it can also be used as a base for aircraft skiing lake or river. The latter takes into account the time, allow such basing.
Water sources. At every airport needs water for various necessities (water for radiators, for the washing of aircraft, for household purposes, fire-fighting). Preferred water, well or reservoir. For the landing site we can restrict the source of water in the removal of no more than 1% km, the parking of aircraft.
Water quality should approach the rain or boiled (lack of rainfall and heavy salts).
Access roads and communications. Deliveries of air cargo by road requires good access roads from the nearest railway stations, towns and marinas. Terms of aircraft parts based on the aerodrome site, combat work in cooperation with the troops, the need for continuous weather information, timely supply necessary goods - all this requires a well-developed network of communications (telephone, telegraph and radio) that must be considered when choosing the airfield.
Placement of the material, supplies, material and technical resources and personnel. Material part, stocks of combat and logistical resources and facilities located on the field aerodromes dispersed but with the surrounding terrain, lighting conditions, and masking agents. Aircraft are located dispersed but the airfield boundary with the adjacent forest or shrub groups at a distance from each other 150-200 m. Stocks of ammunition and fuel have nestled outside the airport. Flight and technical personnel are located at a distance from the airport 3-6 km. Transport, which is mainly intended for the transport of domestic at the airport, located in the stockpiles of the airfield. During the flights at the airportIt is on duty serving with avtosanmashina sansostavom itself as part of the sanitary .razmeschaetsya near the location of personnel.
A breakdown of the airfield. Airfield (work area) for take-off and landing aircraft must comply with the size requirements of this type of aircraft.
The band approaches surrounding the airfield from all sides, or in any case not less than two sides (in the direction of the prevailing winds), should be the appropriate width.
Preparation of working area of the airfield
No surface preparation airfield aerodromes and landing site is not possible.
Training is regulated (elimination of irregularities) and surface treatment as necessary (plowing, harrowing, seeding, rolling and other activities).
Major irregularities are cut, depression backfilled, leveled small unevenness, sometimes the entire surface is loosened somewhat, shrubs, stumps and uprooted some trees, the stones are removed and the entire area is often compacted, but if you have time and need, and strengthened sown grass.
In addition, some airports require drainage to deal with groundwater.
Description fields. When finding airfields need to answer the following questions:
1) the name of the nearest town (distance in kilometers);
2) The nearest railway station or marina (in any direction in relation to the cardinal points, how many kilometers, on a road or river);
3) lines of communication leading to the train station (or the dock), and the nearest town; their condition;
4) the size of the site and its shape (linear dimensions - in meters, areal - in hectares);
5) direction of the prevailing winds;
6) the nature of the surface (soil, ruggedness);
7) obstacles in the territory of the site and the approaches to it (trees, bushes, rocks, stumps, ditches, mounds, buildings, telegraph poles, etc.);
8) the presence of water bodies (natural and artificial), the quality and quantity of water in them;
9) the nature of the surrounding area (vegetation, especially surface water areas);
10) the availability and capacity of the nearest towns to the needs of the Air Force;
11) platform dependence on rainfall, river flooding and melting snow, and for how long;
12) constant communication (radio, post and telegraph office, railway, telegraph, telephone); distance from the site to the nearest point of contact;
13) the existence of enterprises and workshops in the area of the site (in a radius of up to 5 km);
14) availability of labor and building materials in the surrounding area;
15) presence and condition of the vehicle from the local population;
16), local medical and veterinary -Item;
17) a list of the works necessary to adapt the site for the airport;
18) Other information (political, health).
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