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pilot training
pilot training

Pilot training and retraining of pilots


The imperfection of the system of training of flight personnel is a significant deterrent to improve safety. According to Director of Training Center of flight crews and ground personnel consortium Airbus IndustriesThe system of training of pilots in France at all, or almost no traces of scientific and technical progress in civil aviation. Human factors in flight training neglected during the flight training the crew members are taught mainly "pure aerobatics", whereas in most modern aircraft flight maneuvers automated. At the same time almost completely withdrawn from consideration of the overall management flight control environment in the workplace, in the cockpit of the Sun as a whole. Training virtually no regard to different aspects of human relationships, the psychology of command and responsibility of the pilot.

Developed ICAO fundamental concepts in the field of human factors that determine the specific form of the base of professionally significant personal limits and characteristics of the flight crew, were the basis of prevention programs of accidents. A significant addition to the documents ICAO, regulating the specific content of the training programs of aviation specialists, was the introduction in the eighth edition of these documents a new section "flight training", in which the norm requirements for knowledge of future professionals for the first time differentiated by special disciplines. These disciplines include requirements for knowledge capabilities and limitations of the human operator in the process of flight operations, which have the same status as the knowledge requirements in any other section of the traditional training courses, hence the need to develop appropriate training programs and the introduction of new concepts This training system.

In the practice of flight training turned out to be quite enduring concept that education should be the basis of testing of motor skills automatism. In accordance with this concept, the main task of professional training is to train it quickly and accurately respond to those or other external action. As for the studies by observation, analysis of the situation, the ability to operate with imaginaryvariables, and so on. n., it is a secondary matter. This concept, in fact, based on the behaviorist view of human behavior, reducing it to a scheme "stimulus - reaction".

Consideration of whether it is possible, limited only by developing skills, to form highly qualified, creative professionals working in the aviation psychological research focus has been given serious consideration. It was noted that in the history of aviation psychology from the beginning the organization of training of pilots (in the city of 1910) traced attempts to oppose the concept of developing skills to another approach, namely: focus on the development of the ability to creatively interpret the flight situation and act based on reason and not "instinctively ".

It was concluded that the restructuring of the methods of teaching pilots should be in the rejection of its exclusive focus on the testing of automated skills and the transition to mentalizing techniques, allows active conscious construction of the internal regulatory mechanisms of action and ensures the formation of a full image of the flight in the early stages of training of pilots .

Of interest are education programs for practicing skills of the pilot to choose the right solution at the stage of initial training.

The result of the development of these skills is the development of Manuals ERAU (Enbry - Riddle Aviation University), which is based on a technique in which the cadet attention focuses on three determinants of the decision: on the pilot, the sun and the environment. With the pilot associated factors of training, experience, health, stress, degree of fatigue, etc .; Sun determined performance characteristics, conditions of airworthiness, functional systems and work equipment. Environment includes the weather conditions, terrain, ATC work, etc.

The analysis shows that, ultimately, airline accidents occur because of one wrong decision. "Every wrong assessment, - the head of the development of the Guidelines ERAU Jerome Berlin - pilot, doing research in the field of aviation psychology - reduces the possibility of choice, which manages the pilot. The last link in the chain of events is that the pilot does not remain no choice. " The methodology ERAU provides recommendations for "interruption" of this evil chain, namely, the manual identified attitudes ("dangerous types of thinking") that influence a person's decision and offered situational exercises that help identify and overcome these shortcomings.

One section of the Guide ERAU, dedicated to assessing the impact of various stresses on the decision-making process, also contains recommendations for overcoming the negative effects of stress (it was even introduced the concept of "control dangerous situation").

Studies have shown that members of the crew, past the fundamental training on the Guidelines ERAU, made in the supervisory missions to 54% fewer errors than the flight crews that it did not pass. According to experts, the introduction of management review ERAU into practice the training of flight personnel has reduced the number of AP is not less than 5-20%.

Designed later 20 situational exercises for diagnosis and correction of hazardous qualities of the pilot during flight operations, substantially complementary educational materials Guidelines ERAU, make it possible to increase the reliability of diagnostic decision-making process on 42,9%.

The notion of "flight training" has many aspects and, in particular, can be seen in terms of "change of behavior", which aims to develop the members of the crew certain behavioral patterns before they start the practical piloting. It follows that there is no need to work out all the steps of Air Line Pilots training on the basic training aircraft, because, in fact, it may even be harmful to the acquisition of skills of the pilot line.

Today, a lot of progress in the design and use of flight simulators. However, for the successful completion of the flight simulator is necessary to satisfy the following conditions:

  • Trainers should simulate all the possible flight situations;

  • necessary to improve the methodology for the development of training programs;

  • It should be in the process of learning continuous connection to the workplace, which can be used to provide input to the flight simulators of real situations, to effectively investigate these situations by using simulators and complicate their use in the training of pilots in real flight conditions.

Only a continuous communication during training and testing can guarantee the inclusion of proven procedures in the real flight situation.

The high efficiency of training on simulators reduces the flight training program compared to its initial volume by more than 3 times, and the annual economic effect from the introduction of simulators in the training process is about 1 million rubles. (Russian Federation).

The acquisition of skills is crucial to flight training. Flight Skills are divided into mental, sensory, motor, strong-willed and are characterized by extreme complexity, flexibility, plasticity. Often they are implemented in situations of uncertainty and strong emotions.

Practice the initial flight training shows that it is important to take into account the laws of formation flying skills.

Here are some of them:

  • 1. Uneven improve different skills. The acquisition of skills in the first flight takes place, usually slowly. Piloting skills during level flight already firmly fixed in passing 30-40% of the export program, while relatively stable skill landing only in passing 70-80% of the export program. Therefore, at the initial stage should not be required independence in piloting the aircraft, more attention should be paid to the accuracy, timeliness and sequence of necessary actions, not their speed. Otherwise, the first cadet to be well absorbed by the flying business, and in the future this will lead to an incorrect acquisition of skills, the appearance of mistakes and bad habits.

  • 2. Periodic appearance of time delays growth habit, and sometimes even reducing its level, which in psychology is called "plateau". First, the rapid growth of skill, as a rule, is due to the fact that the student begins to copy the movements of the pilot-instructor. However, during subsequent training insufficient. The student must already apply existing knowledge to rebuild their psychological structure of skills, which leads to the emergence of a "plateau". Outwardly, this process is reflected in the increase of tension cadet.

  • 3. Reducing emotional stress room to improve skills, which indicates the formation of the qualities that contribute to strengthening the psychological resistance. During the demonstration flight cadet pulse rate is much lower than in the control operations, when he, along with the instructor begins to practice this skill. Psychologically, this can be explained by the fact that the first demonstration flights pulse rate increases by an average of 12-16 beats per minute, compared with background rates because of the novelty of conditions and nature of the activity. The following flights pulse rate decreases all the time. But as soon as the pilot-instructor begins to require the trainee perform such kinds of skills, pulse rate by an average of 22-26 strikes. With each mission all the time heart rate decreases as the emotional intensity of the cadet falls, the efficiency of learning at the same time increased. When the "plateau" the pulse of the cadet again increased by 15- 18 beats per minute, indicating that the ongoing restructuring of the psychological. With further training heart rate at the cadet again reduced to background values.

  • 4. Targeted exercises and knowledge of the student of their results. This pattern is manifested in the fact that, before the vehicle function to teach, you must explain to the cadet, which is necessary in flight operations, which methods and techniques used by developing skills and what should be the final result. This allows the student to exercise self-control of their actions, to direct its attention to the correction of errors and to achieve the best results. Implementation of these requirements raises interest in the exercise, to mobilize the will of the cadet, making it a diligent, patient and persistent in achieving their goals. But there is one general law to purchase any skill, the essence of which isautomatism that is formed only when in the process of being handled, actions focus is on his goal.

One of the basic principles of flight training, the principle activity, assuming the full development of personality activity and awareness of students with their actions.

In the practice of flight training there are two types of exercises aimed at the formation of motor skills. First - it is learning by trial and error, and the second, based on a psychological concept of learning Galperin, is the gradual formation of mental actions by moving the outside, "material" activities, the inner, mental plan.

Method of exercise based on a thorough understanding of the process of learning motor skills, different from the method of trial and error the prior detailed orientation of cadets in the upcoming mission. At the student pre-formed system of associations estimated and cognitive activity, accelerating the formation of motor skills and significantly reduces the number of errors.

The external signs indicating the progress in the process of formation flying skills, include a number of manifestations:

  • Association of partial actions into one coherent action;

  • eliminating unnecessary movements and excess voltage;

  • weakening the role of the visual and increasing the role of motor control technology implementation actions;

  • possible activities in various ways or methods.

When retraining for a new aviation technology the most important point in the psychological

respect is restructuring skills. The main psychological characteristics of this process are related to the influence of the old skills in the development of new and dynamic acquisition of the latter. In the course of retraining for new skills can have both positive and negative influence of old skills. Influence of the old skills to new skills called transference.

On the positive transference of skills affect the similarity of the new equipment and the old cabins type of aircraft, a single methodology of training, a positive mental attitude for retraining. Positive transference of skills also contributes to the plasticity of skills. Negative transfer occurs when new knowledge, for whatever reason (for example, under the influence of stress) is applied prior experience, the return of which has negative consequences.

In summer practice often there are cases of negative transference of skills during transition to modern aircraft types, including the new aircraft systems. Thus, the increase in the percentage of erroneous actions to 12-15% spoke about the importance and the need to consider the possibility of negative transference skill.

It should be noted that the flying skills in the absence of an enabling environment are lost until de automation. Factors causing de automation may be a break in the implementation of relevant action, excitement, fatigue, illness, passive attitude to the work. When de automation skills are lost, not all the same. It was noted that the most negative impact on the skills of a break when the take-off, the calculation of the approach and landing, and when flying on instruments, which is due to less stability sensory skills during breaks in comparison with the motor.


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