Plane Petlyakov Pe-2. A photo. History. Characteristics.
Bomber PE-2 1938 was established in the year and in 1939 made its first flight. Based on the twin-engine fighter "100" or "weaving", as he was known in wider circles, originally as a fighter aircraft designed for high-altitude flights. bomber Creator became VM Petlyakov. The history of its creation is interesting because Petlyakov caught by a wave of repression, he was remanded in custody, as a pest, but, due to the fact that the state did not want to minds disappeared, Special Technical Division was established on the basis of the NKVD - STO. Actually hence the name.
Bomber PE-2. A photo.
Its first flight «100» made-1 May 1940 years. On this show came to see everything: the ordinary citizens, soldiers and German officers, at that time signed the "Act on non-aggression" with the Soviet Union. However, while "weaving" was demonstrated as a high-altitude fighter, but in June the appointment has changed, and the aircraft was renamed the PE-2 - dive bomber.
The main task of the designers was just a dive: it was given a lot of time, because This was to be the main function of the bomber. Crew PE-2 or "pawns" consisted of 3-oh man. The plane had two piston engine M-105, each of which had a capacity of 1100 hp The maximum speed of the aircraft was 540 km / h, range - 1300 km. Service ceiling was equal to 8800 m and the maximum combat load - 1000 kg. The plane was completely lined with metal, only the rudder trim is made of fabric. The crew was protected by armor. The bomber had a hole for the machine guns.
But initially PE-2 dropped bombs only in a horizontal position, because drivers feared that the chips will damage the aircraft and will cause injury to the crew. The first, who was not afraid to dive Polbin Ivan Semenovich. His crew was the most friendly of all the war. Three men, three friends, three comrades. They were inseparable: flying together, resting together. And so it went through the war, up to Berlin. IS Polbin was twice awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
Bomber PE-2. Video.
Do not destined to see the success of his creation only Petlyakov. The creator of the plane died in the year 1942, in its PE-2. It was not due to a malfunction in the plane, but because of the weather conditions, because it was winter, it was snowing and the road could not see. Still VI Petlyakov will always be a great designer, played a winning game of his "pawns".
The aircraft in the Soviet Army was given the nickname "pawn." Pe-2 - Soviet dive bomber, which is actively exploited in order to combat during the Second World War. He became the most numerous dive bomber made in the vast Soviet Union.
The development of "pawn" engaged designers and engineers KB NKVD, SKB-29 1938 from the middle of his high-rise was constructed on the basis of the twin-engine fighter pilot "100".
The first flight on the Pe-2 22.12.1939 was committed. Serially produced aircraft began to 1940 years.
Pe-2 used as a flying laboratory to test the rocket boosters. For the first time to perform a flight with a rocket launcher on board managed the fall of 1943, was an increase in the speed at 92 km / h. Tests of various rocket launchers lasted until 1945, the rocket boosters were designed by SP Korolev.
The design of the aircraft Pe-2 made by type with the two-keel nizkoplan plumage. It should be noted the successful arrangement of the cockpit, from which the pilot and navigator had an excellent viewing angle. Slow down during a dive performed by Trellis brake flaps, which are pressed against the bottom of the wing. Sedation occurred by exhibiting boards upstream.
The aircraft was equipped for the first time in the USSR, many electrical control mechanisms. In such a step had to go because of the fact that in the pressurized cabin will be hard to output the moving rod. Unfortunately, it is often by-wire equipment became the cause of self-ignition device in the air. Sparks, which may be formed during operation, set fire to petrol fumes.
The hydraulic system of the aircraft dive-filled spirtoglitserinovuyu mixture AMG-6, which aviators called the "Liquor chassis."
Serial production settled on three aircraft plants: 22 number in Kazan - the main production base of Pe-2, №39 in Moscow and Irkutsk, Kazan number 124. Total built 11 427 copies dive bomber.
Military personnel in two ways refers to the appearance of the aircraft. On the one hand, the car was quite modern for those years and had excellent flight performance, good equipment and automation. On the other hand, it was difficult to manage, especially to take off or landing. Profile wing needed at high speeds, and assuming an error in piloting at low speed, could overturn the aircraft wing. On landing Pe-2 often the "goats" because of the work nedoskonalnoy chassis shock absorbers, and on the rise tendency for a reversal.
During braking on landing the aircraft was prone to nosing out its specific location the main landing gear.
The presence of the electric in need of proper maintenance, which was impossible to carry out qualitatively in war.
For service in the ranks of the Soviet Air Force aircraft Pe-2 1941 enrolled in the year and spent on the front entire period of the Second World War. In order to combat bomber used quite successfully. Due to the high rate of Pe-2 was well used during daylight hours. But the first serial bomber manned weak defensive armament. They had machine guns mounted ShKAS - extremely low power and capricious weapons, which was a plus only rate.
Since the aircraft had to cover up in the air fighters during the war he did not disclose their full potential.
Only since 1943 years, instead of the serial planes ShKAS steel complete with machine guns Berezin, and defensive power of Pe-2 has grown substantially.
Dive Bomber used for precision strikes on bases, transport hubs and ground equipment of the enemy in heavy cloud cover, it was used to crash the enemy convoys.
|Wing area, m2||40.50|
|engine's type||2-105 PD M|
|Power, hp||X 2 1100|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||432|
|Cruising speed, km / h||412|
|Practical range, km||1500|
|The maximum rate of climb, m / min|
|Practical ceiling, m||9000|
|Armament:||two bow 12.7-mm machine gun and four UBC|
|7.62-mm machine guns ShKAS|
|bomb load - normal - 500 kg, maximum - 1000 kg|
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