Failed engine airplane or a flight with asymmetric thrust.
The flight manual for each type of aircraft provides recommendations for piloting in the event of an engine or propeller control system at all stages of flight. Here we consider only some of the phenomena occurring with the aircraft in the event of asymmetric thrust.
At the initial time after engine failure occurs glide the plane in the direction opposite to the failed engine. Aircraft having lateral stability tends to tilt in the direction opposite to sliding. This occurs when the lateral component of the force of gravity causes the movement of the aircraft toward the roll, ie. e. seeks to eliminate slippage arose. Thus, the plane with a sufficiently high lateral stability, tend to eliminate Yas reverse roll occurs when engine failure slip will vigorously nakrenyatsya towards the failed engine. The plane with a small degree of lateral stability in the event of an engine failure will nakrenyatsya with moderate angular velocity.
In aircraft with turboprop engine failure is accompanied by a cessation of airflow wing of one of the screws. Therefore, applying bank turboprop aircraft in the event of engine failure, it is more vigorous than that of a turbojet aircraft (ceteris paribus).
The pilot in the event of engine failure and the emergence of the aircraft while kreneniya usually promptly rejects the ailerons, fending crepe. However, in practice, the pilot does not have enough experience flying with asymmetric thrust, sometimes rejects untimely and insufficient rudder, t. E. Insufficient eliminates the root cause of heel - slip. Consequently, in the event of engine failure, the pilot shall, fending arising desire to roll the airplane, at the same time vigorously reject the pedal in the opposite engine failure.
Some aircraft in the event of an engine failure on take-off at large deviations rudder efforts by the pilot to the pedal, decrease, and in some cases even reverse efforts appear insignificant. This phenomenon is not dangerous. The pilot must remember that, despite the drop in force, should remain rudder, and a suit for the retention of the aircraft from turning. As the flight speed (decreasing grazing angle and needs deflection), these effects disappear.
After parrying arisen at the time of engine failure, disturbances of the aircraft roll rate and the pilot must create a bias towards running engines, causing the appearance of the lateral component of the force of gravity G sin from which at a certain value of the bank balances lateral force that occurs when the rudder deflection. In this case, the flight of the aircraft is provided with a roll without slipping.
When flying without slipping decreases the value of the aerodynamic drag and provide a satisfactory control of the aircraft. This method is almost the best of piloting.
Strictly speaking, it is more profitable to fly with a small slip in the direction of running motors. At the same time due to the reduced need for balancing the rudder deflection is somewhat reduced drag of the aircraft. However, flight mode, corresponding to the minimum resistance, very close to the regime of the flight without slipping. In addition, the aircraft is not a device to accurately determine and maintain a predetermined amount of slip. Therefore, common to all modern passenger aircraft in the flight manual and piloting mode is set, virtually ensuring flight with failed engine without slipping.
In older types of aircraft, with a lower installed power, as well as on airplanes reducedthe effectiveness of the rudder, in some cases flying at asymmetrical thrust advisable to carry out a small slip in the direction of running motors. It should be borne in mind that the development of significant sliding sideways running engines will increase the resistance of the aircraft and can cause deterioration of controllability.
Errors in piloting a flight with asymmetric thrust:
1. Flying without a roll. Flying with failed engine without creating a bias towards running engines usually happens when too big efforts at the helm of the ailerons. In this case, the pilot experienced great efforts at the helm, it seems that he has created the required roll, while the aircraft is flying without a roll or a roll in the direction of the failed engine.
2. Flying with excessively large roll in the direction of engine running. This flight is usually due to the fact that the pilot, wanting to reduce efforts on arms control, creates a bias towards the working engine more than the recommended flight manual of the airplane. This occurs when a large sliding toward the running engine increases the drag of the airplane, which is particularly undesirable in flight with smaller excesses of traction (e.g., during take-off under high outside air temperature, and so on. N.).
To prevent these errors is necessary to maintain the recommended flight manual roll and to monitor the situation index sliding the ball, avoiding large deviations in the direction of his heel.
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