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pilot error. The scientific approach to aviation.
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pilot error. The scientific approach to aviation.

pilot error. The scientific approach to aviation.


Consider the causes of errors can not be a pilot, even in a very large book. Next will be considered the most difficult to investigate mistakes made in konsustalnom state, ie, when and flight conditions and the condition of the pilot had been perfectly normal. On the complexity of the investigation says such errors, in particular, the following fact.
When we asked for flight instructors explain why pilots sometimes forget the landing gear on landing, they unanimously replied that this, in principle, can not be that this mystic and some explanation of these cases can not be. The pilots themselves, have forgotten to release the chassis, also said that the mind does not exert as this could happen.
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Pilot error

Pilot error


There are many different mistakes of the konsuetalnom condition. All of them are connected with a completely objective, ie are independent of consciousness and impaired functioning will pilot flight image. Consider some of them.


Functional disorders - It improperly his place. For example, the replacement of one other way: when an engine failure the pilot correctly performs all the required procedures to shut down the engine, but with controls another - working - engine.


Violations of state - The image, or any element of it is too weak or too strong (full of energy) in comparison to other images or the same elements in order to perform its proper role. For example, the feeling heeled horizon in the perception of the rough edges of the clouds is sometimes so strong that creates a feeling heeled pilot aircraft, though it really is in level flight, and thereby forcing the pilot to bank the plane.


Elementary violation - Item-level violations. As such, it is possible, for example, result in the formation of such as psevdodeystvie (described cm. Below).


Structural disorders - Lack or excess cells and connections between them. For example, it so happens that during the flight simulator height indicator has long standing at zero, and the pilot continued to fly a plane. This means that the values ​​in an image height of flight no.


Integrity Violations - The lack of clear (continuous) the boundaries of the image. For example, when flying clouds in a homogeneous environment, when an eye not for that "catch", sometimes the pilot the impression of the crash. And not fall under the laws of aerodynamics (or planning a dive with a loss of height), and the like in an elevator - straight down, but on the plane, in the horizontal position. This mirage pilot often can not distinguish from reality, that is, formed image, combining elements and way flight (finding the plane in the air, its specific position in space), and the image of the fall.

Procedural violations - violations of updating the image. An example of this - a virtual state.


Environmental violations - Breach of the relationship with the environment. For example, the "random" off serviceable engine startup failed, due to a certain perfect biomechanics of motion and control panel design

Every act of activity in the course of its implementation goes through three phases:

  • It has not configured
  • performed
  • already made


Each of these phases corresponds to a certain state of mind:

  • Unsatisfied - waiting (intent to)
  • Running - urgency
  • PERFORMANCE - achieved.


In the course of professional activity the current act can be suddenly interrupted by the need to perform some other act of emergency. This interruption leads to a structurally defective acts as an interrupted or terminated. In principle, incompleteness act causes a person to return to the interrupted activity. However, it so happens that the combination of a defective act with another creates a complex that is structurally complete. These complexes are called psevdodeystviyami. Psevdodeystvie leads to an inadequate understanding of the activities. Thus, the state of intention to commit an act of staff can be stressful to the state of the relevance and achievements ™ another act unexpectedly terminated first, and generate confidence in the commission of an act of the staff.


Pilot error

Pilot error


Thus, one of the mechanisms in the error state konsuetalnom pilot psevdodeystvy formation is experienced by the pilot acts as an integral, i.e. expected - continuously updated - with the result achieved. Psevdodeystvie is the result of pairing of complementary fragments of different acts. The basic condition for this is the high coupling operationalization of one of the acts.


The acts are of two types: действие и операция.

  • Action - such an act, which is completely controlled by the mind, it is the focus.
  • Operation is controlled only partially, on the periphery of attention. A person may, at their pleasure or the need to translate the act out of the limelight to the periphery and vice versa.


This operation differs from automatism, which never changes its status as an automatic act. Implementation of the act at the level of operations enables a person to perform two acts at the same time - due to the inferiority monitor the implementation of one of them. In these cases we act in which the error occurred, it is performed at the level of the operation and is controlled only its structural completion. And as psevdodeystvie formed - structurally complete the act, the erroneous action is experienced as properly executed.


Therefore, the operator is not aware of such an error and does not return to the interrupted activity, being sure that everything is done correctly.


We consider the psychological causes of erroneous actions of the pilots, a classification of errors. Special analysis of cases subject to landing on the fuselage. Offered psychological and technical means to prevent errors is not the landing gear during landing and the landing gear on the run.

For pilots, instructors, trainers, teachers, flight schools, as well as experts in the field of psychology and ergonomics.


This in itself frequent references in the scientific and journalistic literature of human error is an indication that the problem is not all right. It does not give even a single allegation that the errors are no longer relevant and that the means of combating them are found at work on the problem of errors written, probably not less than committed themselves errors.


Of course, human error is always committed. But to some of the pores are not interested in humanity, since it was believed that if a person knows how to do something correctly, all violations is a consequence of his own imprudent, for which he himself suffered any, or it should be punished. In other words, the focus has been on accuracy, to ensure conditions and opportunities for proper operation, and the error has been viewed as a misunderstanding. But the attitude of errors has changed dramatically as soon as it was realized that people will inevitably make mistakes in their work. This awareness is due to the emergence of complex activities in which errors affect not only the face, make a mistake, but on the other absolutely nothing in those innocent people. The first such activity was difficult profession locomotive driver.


Driver error can lead to a massive loss of human life, to the loss of expensive equipment and disruption of normal social life (for example, disruption of communication between the cities). Working the driver is so complex that it is impossible for anyone to vouch that he will never make a mistake in their work. This situation demanded a change of attitude to the organization of activities: it has become apparent that it is impossible to ensure absolute correctness of activities, and it is necessary to carry out some activities, neutralizing the occurrence of errors and their consequences.


One of the first in Russia against the erroneous program has developed a railway engineer I. Richter in 80-ies of the XIX century. Thus, the problem of human error more than 100 years. With the emergence of new professions and their operators significant complication in comparison with the activity of the driver of the locomotive theme urgency growing. For example, with the advent of aircraft with retractable landing gear, and the cases were landing on the fuselage due to the fact that the pilot did not release the landing gear. Since that time began to emerge various explanations are not the landing gear and proposals on the prevention of such incidents. But while much attention is paid to these incidents, they still occur. This means that their analysis missed some important point.


Pilot error 2

Pilot error


From a psychological point of view, this omission is the lack of analysis of the subjective picture of the incident. Usually it is forgotten that the pilot was conscious and, therefore, the importance of various factors determined not so much by their presence, as the nature of their awareness. Therefore, when analyzing the error description is necessary as an external to the consciousness' factors and internal, that is, needs analysis of the nature reflect the situation in the mind of the pilot. Unfortunately, this point is very often ignored.


Trust appeal to the pilot gives very valuable information.


So, our message to the pilots, whose fault was not released chassis, has revealed a number of significant and totally unknown facts, which play an important role in the occurrence of incidents, namely the confidence of the pilot at fault, that he that errors are not made .


In-depth analysis of the content of consciousness is only possible pilots in the approach to the incident as a special single event, joining in a unique pattern of all the factors: the technical and psychological. Only such an approach is productive in many cases. But the fact is that now prevails a different approach, in which the object of analysis are the general properties of different mistakes in this particular case, all leveled, particularly subjective factors. At the same time it lost the essence of the incident, his specific reasons.


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