Boarding the plane
Boarding the plane - shell and feathers forming the outer surface of the body of the aircraft. It is necessary for the aircraft to sleek. From how much quality will paneling, it depends largely on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft.
Modern aircraft paneling is made of separate panels or sheets of aluminum alloy (or titanium and stainless steel), molded on the surface of the wings or fuselage. Fixed plates or panels usually are secured to the frame by riveting countersunk, the detachable connected via capscrews "countersunk". Sheets of skin are connected end to end. Often used for cladding the fuselage krupnomonolitnye ribbed panels and cladding layer honeycomb. Radomes (radio-elements plating) made of a monolithic or honeycomb composite. Also recently composites are used as sheathing panels and power units.
Depending on the material used for the construction of aircraft trim the aircraft can be:
- metal: steel, aluminum alloys, titanium;
- wood (or plywood);
- perkalnaya (linen);
- composite materials;
- laminated film.
The history of the aircraft skin
The first aircraft had a lining made of a fabric that is impregnated with varnish (hence, in fact, there was the name), fuselages and often do not have the skin. Later trim started making wood - plywood and veneer, which are also impregnated with varnish.
With the development of technology lining was made of aluminum, smooth and corrugated. Today is used exclusively smooth metal paneling. However, in light aircraft can still be found fabric covering. This is extremely rare, as it effectively replaces the polymer films.
Types of skins
In aviation there are two types of skin - soft "idle" and hard "work." In our time, the advantage of a hard metal skin as it fully meets the requirements of durability, aerodynamics, weight and stiffness. It takes the form of a load torque and bending moments, external aerodynamic loads and shear load forces acting on the airframe. Materials for production of stressed skin: titanium, aluminum and steel alloys, aircraft plywood, composite materials. Titanium and steel are the most common in the construction of supersonic aircraft.
Non-power trim is not included in the power circuit, as the load with skin immediately transmitted to the frame. Material for its manufacture can serve percale (cloth).
Depending on the type of construction sheathing and feathering of the wing can be thick, consisting of monolithic machined or molded panels, thin-layer and, supported by a special dial stringer. In this case, space is mezhobshivochnom special filler (cell foam, foil or special corrugations). It is important to trim the wing kept a predetermined shape and was tough. The formation of folds in it provokes drag.
The upper wing skin under the influence of the bending moment loaded cyclic compressive forces, and the bottom, respectively, are stretched. For this reason, the upper panels of compressed, usually high strength materials are used, demonstrating the excellent compression itself. In turn, the lower the tension applied plating materials characterized by high fatigue characteristics. Plating material for supersonic aircraft chosen based in flight heating - the conventional aluminum alloys, heat resistant aluminum alloys, steel or titanium.
To increase the strength and vitality of skin along the length of an aircraft wing the number of joints, have a shorter life compared to the main canvas skin, seek to minimize. Weight wing skin - 25-50% of the total weight.
Immediately it should be noted that it is selected according to the current load. Lower plating zone receives the compressive load of the portion which is attached to the stringers, and the top takes the tensile forces across the area of skin completely. Thickness of cladding in a sealed fuselage is selected depending on the internal overpressure. To improve survivability in the skin of the fuselage often use tape-stoppers, excluding crack propagation.
Connection casing and frame elements
To resort to the three methods of connection frame with a shell:
- lining is attached to the frames;
- lining is attached to the stringers;
- lining is attached to the frames, and stringers.
In the second case are formed only longitudinal riveted joints, with no transverse, it has a positive effect on the aerodynamics of the fuselage. Loose Cabin on a frame at lower loads becomes unstable, which increases the weight of the structure. To avoid this, connect further trim plate (compensator) with frames. The first method of attachment is used exclusively besstringernyh (cladding) fuselage.
It is attached to the frame honeycomb paneling. It comprises a core and two metal panels. The honeycomb structure - hexagonal form material composed of a metal. The core is an adhesive that allows not to use rivets. This construction is capable of transferring the voltage across the surface and is characterized by high resistance to deformation.
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