OAO Nizhny Novgorod Aircraft Plant Sokol
Aircraft building plant "Sokol" - Aircraft organization based in Nizhny Novgorod.
Is rayonoobrazuyuschim now Nizhny Novgorod (about it formed the Moscow region of Nizhny Novgorod). Quite a large stake in the company "Falcon", namely 38 percent owned open akuionernomu Company "United Aircraft Corporation".
In 1929 year Kanavino and Sormovo, along with other settlements (Burnakovka, Karpovka, Molitovka, Kostarikha, etc.) were included in the Nizhny Novgorod. Zarechny district of Nizhny Novgorod, in the period of "industrialization", became a platform for construction of new and expansion of existing plants.
21.10.1929, the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR adopted a decree on the construction of an aircraft factory number 21 in Nizhny Novgorod. At the time he was supposed to be not only the "... significant of all existing in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics aircraft factories, but also one of the largest aircraft manufacturing plants, even among overseas."
New aircraft factory was built in the western part of the city, between the rivers and Levinka Berezovka in the wasteland, surrounded by many forests and swamps, and Kostarikha between Sormovo, near the villages Ratmaniha, Knyazhiha and Gornushkino. Unlike located seven kilometers south of the Gorky Automobile Plant ,, running at the same time with the resonance and fanfare, the company was immediately classified. Nothing in newspapers about the construction. Factory buildings were hidden by thick bushes and were not seen with any of the Moscow highway, with no railway Gorky - Moscow, under which foreigners could move.
Because of confidentiality apparently there was no indication on the true purpose of the plant under construction. The workers, who had just arrived reported that the plant will produce special products, and those who knew what was happening, signed a nondisclosure agreement. Aircraft Factory was not subordinate to the local party and government organs, so the mention about it almost never found in the archives of any executive committee or the Gorky Regional CPSU (b).
Construction of the plant was officially launched under the leadership of 02.05.1930 years. Muratova AM 04.05.1930, commenced the foundation of the main industrial body in a festive atmosphere. Program approved construction of the camp at the same time with the construction of the plant. In view of the introduction to the work of "C-30» - State mobilization plan, all construction work that required tremendous efforts have been boosted by the maximum. By 01.07.1931 the company was to be in force. The problem was eventually resolved.
In accordance with the planned schedule of construction priorities were construction procurement and training workshops, vtoroocherednymi - construction of assembly plants, airport facilities, auxiliary and service buildings. Experience of construction of the plant № 21 in the future was also used in the construction and other aviation plants. The plant was designed for the main issue in peace time about two thousand aircraft. In the beginning it was supposed to produce and-3 (single-seat fighter), P-5 (reconnaissance aircraft and K-5 (passenger aircraft).
Aircraft Plant № 21 officially began its work 01.02.1932, while many objects and body at the time had not yet been completed. The first phase included six workshops (woodworking, tool, copper-dyuraley, mechanical, metalwork and repair) and dryer air timber. Erected in haste five-year construction of the plant, it is often not the high quality. For example, 21.02.1934 emergency occurred: the roof collapsed shop on woodworking, all the rooms filled up with debris over an area of 4 thousand square meters, two people were killed, ten injured.
Dvadtsatidevyatiletny young professional Miroshnikov Eugene was appointed the first director of the plant. Design Bureau of the plant was organized on the basis of a specially formed 07.03.1931 the Moscow branch of the department of design and drawing of the plant № 21. In the future, it is replenished by graduates of Nizhny Novgorod College of civil air fleet. Drawing and Design Department, whose employees are actively practiced in internships and design offices in Moscow and the Moscow Aviation Plant moved (April 1932 years after the launch of the company) in Nizhny Novgorod. In 1933 year for foreign specialists working under contract, and oriented to the Nizhny Novgorod aircraft factory at the Theater Square in the city center was built hotel "Intourist".
A former city airport was used as a factory airfield. It was located north of the Moscow highway. In the interests of confidentiality it strictly instructed to call "Training Osoaviahima airfield." It was built flight test station for domestic service airport ,.
The first aircraft, production of which was launched on 21-m factory - a biplane fighter and-5. The first aircraft was assembled at the plant in August 1932 years. 661-5 planes and was promoted to 1932 - 1934 the first half of the year, twenty fighters were performed in a double academic version. The factory in the process of improving the production was faced with significant challenges: a mismatch of planned objectives of the present production capacities, low quality of raw materials and components, labor shortage and its low qualification. In view of the above the level of quality of aircraft was less than ideal. The total production of aircraft factories of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1933 year reached a record $ 4116 aircraft of various types, most of them have been biplanes and P-2-5. The percentage of the aircraft factory number 21 was only eight per cent, ie 312 aircraft ..
Enterprises in 1936, the new name was given in honor of Sergo Ordzhonikidze - "Sergo Ordzhonikidze Factory."
Order of People's Commissar of heavy industry Ordzhonikidze Sergo from 23.03.1936 bosses aircraft factory number 21 has been notified that he will soon organize the production of the other fighter - And-16: «In the second half 1934 year at an aircraft factory number 21 the decision of the government charged with a very important task - to rebuild the industrial Factory activity by organizing the mass production of more complex aircraft "and for preparation of a-16 (high-speed fighter) began in 1934 year. The first prototypes and-16 tested in action, Valery Chkalov, Hero of the Soviet Union and the main pilot plant with 1934 1938 for years.
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