Northrop B-2 Spirit
In-2 - it is an American strategic bomber production, which is part of the third generation of stealth aircraft. This air unit is not considered to be "invisible", since there are special systems that can identify it. But thanks to a little visibility to enemy air defense aircraft almost was not replaced, as had a great level of survival.
Aircraft construction is made on a "flying wing" with the absence of the vertical stabilizer. Splitting guards act as rudders. Their installed at the wing tips. The main part of the plane is constructed from aluminum and titanium alloys with a small application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics and the polyamide bismaleimide matrix with increased heat resistance. The main component is the titanium bearing caisson single-spar, which is located in the center front of the hull and related intermediate sections. These are mounted carbon fiber wings console.
The thickness of the titanium panels monolithic caisson - 23 mm. A number of titanium element is constructed with the addition of the diffuse welding and superplastic forming. Some of them are the most long-length in the United States Air Force.
Form aircraft in terms 12 formed by straight lines, which makes it possible concentration of total reflection in a horizontal plane of the main bottlenecks in certain sectors. The underlying chetyrёhlepestkovaya scheme. Parallel to the rear and front edges of the housing and hatches, engine compartment and the flaps landing gear and air intakes create shells X-shaped placed 4 main reflection sector. In 2 sector with front and rear hemispheres.
With front and side angles bomber has no flat surfaces and straight lines. The wear of the wing is located internal styloid radar absorbing construction with honeycomb core, radio-absorbing coating. The front edge of the plane body sharp, has no kinks, with a sweep 33°. The trailing edge is in the form dvoynogoW. On semispan is the top point of fracture. Wing In-2 performed by supercritical profile.
On the airplane engine installed 4 - 2 on each wing near the bomb bay. Especially for radar stealth bomber engine nozzle constructed flat. This also contributes to a form of isotropic scattering outgoing waves, since the plane is made by blending the elements and the minimum number of projections. All the slots on the outside surface of the aircraft is completely closed up, and the arms and motors are inside the structure.
The crew consists of two people. They are hermetically sealed cabin. In every workplace there is a full set of controls. Entrance to the cabin is located in a compartment of the nose landing gear is carried out by means of a folding ladder. In the same compartment of a button engine start and basic aircraft systems. Most often they are used in the event of an alarm. Cabin four glazed sandwich panels, which provide inspection 200 in the horizontal plane°. The panel coated with a special layer having photoreactivity, which becomes opaque when the light impact of a nuclear explosion. Radar radiation can not pass through it, because there is gold-coated. During piloting aircraft pilots protivolazernye wear glasses.
In hvostovoychasti between housing sections and consoles of the wing fuel tanks are located. For cabin crew on top of the fuselage refueling system is the receiver of fuel in flight. In-2 can refuel planes K and COP-135-10.
By-wire flight control system kvadrodupleksnaya, digital, with more responsive drive. It consists of four calculators and can continue to operate at two failures. Air data computer with the presence of 20 unobtrusive pressure sensors.
The complex on-board equipment includes a navigation subsystem NSS class. Its members included 2 interconnected blocks: IMU inertial and astroinertial AIU. At present 8 CRT color multifunctional indicators, according 4 for each pilot.
History of the project In-2
The history of the heavy bomber dates back to 1979 years from the ATV program (Advanced Technology Bomber). While its peak won "the cold war" between the US and the USSR. In this period were the US election in which Reagan promised to restore the American armed forces. In August 1980, the Ministry of Defence announced its intention to create a series of undistinguished-looking aircraft, which included present the ATV program.
As a result of the preliminary estimation of a competition to develop a new bomber won the two teams: Lockheed Rockwell and Northrop Boeing. Both of them received sufficient funding and research contracts. In late October 81 year won Northrop Boeing team.
The proposed project has received codification in-2 labeled «Spirit». In the middle of 80-ies there was a hitch with the design of the aircraft, which delayed the start of flight testing on 2 years and resulted in increased funding to 1 billion dollars. By 1989 year according to estimates for the project of a new low-profile bomber as a whole spent 23 billion dollars.
The first prototype assembled in the factory №42 Air Force in California, in the same place, and it demonstrated the public. And he made his first public flight in July.
Due to the high cost of enormous built just copy In 21-2. Almost all of them are named after US states. Last, the "Spirit of America" under the board 82-1066 number have adopted in July 14 2000 years.
The US Congress in 2008, the program has financed the modernization of armament control system against ground moving targets. In December of the same year with the company founder we signed a contract for the improvement of the radar system, causing the system was transferred to a different frequency range. In April, the modernized 2009 Capacity In-2. Now he could carry up to 13 500 kg of cargo in each compartment. In 2010 the company has been able to solve the problem of cracking of the metal panels of the aircraft.
In April, after 2 year ended bomber tests with the presence of new programmnogoobespecheniya, navigation and communication systems. And at the end of September 2012 was completed modernization In-2 the installation of a new radar AN / APQ-181 the presence of AFAR. Additionally, we install a new communications system and avionics.
In-2 - it is not only the most expensive aircraft in the world, but also in the history of aviation. For the period of 1998, the cost of one unit in the aircraft-was 2 1,157 billion dollars. ATV cost of the program has cost America 45 billion dollars, and the total cost, taking into account R & D for a single instance 2,1 billion dollars.
The first-2 used for other purposes during the NATO operation in Yugoslavia 1999 years. He was also actively involved for all sorts of percussion operations in Afghanistan and Iraq territories. In 2003, the aircraft used in the operation "Iraqi Freedom» (22 sorties). In 2011 year - the operation "Odyssey. Dawn, "was used in the three-2 in Libya.
Northrop B-2 Spirit - The strategic «Northrop» company bomber, the main US Air Force aircraft in its class late XX - early XXI centuries. Its first flight took place on November 22 1988, at the beginning of the century in the ranks was aircraft 21. In-2 made by "stealth" technology, it almost can not be seen devices detect air targets.
This is achieved by the geometry of the airframe (no sharp bends, kinks between mating parts plating), the use of composite materials, the use of special coatings. The aircraft is capable of performing combat missions both at high altitudes, and in small, in particular, it can be to fly in the mode of rounding terrain.
Northrop B-2 Spirit photo
Powerplant: four turbofan engine F118-GE-100 company «General Electric».
Key Features Northrop B-2 Spirit:
Wingspan: 52 m
Length: 21 m
Maximum speed: 1 010 km / h
Range: 11 100 km
Start of operation: April 1997 of
Cost: 737 000 000-737 000 000 USD (1997 g)
Engine Type: General Electric F118
Northrop B-2 Spirit scheme
Combat load: up to 22 730 kg
Nuclear weapons: 16 V61 x-11 (340 kilotons) or 16 x B83 (1,1 megatons) or 16 x AGM-129 ACM or 16 x AGM-131 SRAM II
Conventional bombs: 80 or 82 Mk.16 x x Mk.84 36 or cluster bombs x CBU-87 / CBU-89 GATOR
Precision weapons: 8 x GBU-27 or AGM-154 JSOW or 12's JDAM
Cruise missiles: 16 x AGM-158 JASSM
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation