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MiG-21 - Multipurpose fighter
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MiG-21 - Multipurpose fighter

MiG-21 - Multipurpose fighter

 

 

Mikoyan's multipurpose fighter is one of the best aircraft of its class. The first flight on this fighter was made 28 May 1958 (test pilot - Hero of the Soviet Union VA Nefedov). In the same year, the serial production of a second-generation fighter began. For more than four decades, from the day the combat aircraft arrives in part to this day, it is in service not only in the country of its creation, but also in many other countries. MiG-21 was produced under license at the factories of Czechoslovakia (in 1962-1966), in India (in 1966-1969), in China (from 1964). The plane, which was released in China, had the designation "Hian" F7. The fighting in Korea (19501953) showed great opportunities for Soviet MiGs in air battles with a strong air enemy who fought on modern American aircraft.

MiG-21

Analyses showed that the Soviet MiG-15 along with the benefits have disadvantages compared with the aircraft "Sabre". Already 1954, the work began on the development of a new perspective of modern fighter aircraft, the design of which allows to upgrade combat vehicle during operation.

Accumulated years of experience Mikoyan Design Bureau contributed to his team successfully and in a timely manner to solve one of the most important tasks of the state level.

The prototype of the MiG-21 were prototypes of aircraft with swept and delta wing's own CB: E-2, E-4 / 1, E-4 / 2, E-5, E-6, E-50 / 1, E-50 / 3, E-7.

The history of the MiG-21

This unit really can be called the most famous and prominent fighter who belongs to the second and the third generation of the future. This machine is the most actively used in 60-70-ies of the last century.

MiG-21

This plane is made of aluminum and its alloys, wherein substantially all the connections were made by means of rivets. The fuselage had a normal circuit device structure. He was placed low wings that have arrow-shaped. The whole body is represented as a semi-monocoque, which is equipped with four side members.

When designing the designers created two devices with the designation MiG-21, which had significant differences between them. First, as mentioned earlier, he had swept wings and has designated as the E-2, and the second car had triangular wings and designated cipher E-4. Oddly enough, these differences were due to the fact that while designers could not accurately calculate, with some wing aircraft can reach a maximum speed, and they decided to check it out in practice.

MiG-21

The new fighter was very similar to its predecessor, namely the MiG-19. The main difference was that the new device was equipped with one engine, the wing profile became thinner. The new air intake was adjustable, which allowed to optimize the engine performance. All this served to the fact that the aircraft could develop a maximum speed of 1700 km / h. It should be noted that these speed characteristics at that time were already inadequate. Also, the designers saw a lack of management of this machine, because at maneuvers at high speeds, snatched up the nose and went into a tailspin. This problem was solved by installing on the wings of aerodynamic ridges.

Designers also resorted to replacing the engine with a more powerful, allowing to achieve high speeds by plane E-2, and the maximum speed was 1900 km / h. The device with the designation E-4 also had a number of shortcomings that had to be corrected designers. In spite of all, the main goal was to increase the speed of flight, even the leadership supports this position. It is in 60-70-ies was a very active arms race between the Union and the United States. In order to show all its power, these countries have actively participated in armed conflicts in different parts of the globe.

It should be noted that this project was developed for a very long time, since the modernization of MiG-21 1989 performed even in the year. With the improvements on the plane has been found more modern equipment that could significantly increase the fighting qualities of the machine. After these improvements, this machine could not inferior in quality to foreign analogues.

MiG-21 cabin

The aircraft type MiG-21 can rightly be called the most massive machine, which is manufactured serially over 28 86 years until the year. She was in service in many countries of the world.

The modifications of the MiG-21

For all the long time of manufacture of the machine designers performed revision and improvement. Due to this, there are three generations of this unit.

The first generation is a plane which is designated as the MiG-21F. This front-line fighter produced with 1959 years. He had quite powerful weapons, which was represented by two 30-millimeter cannon type HP-30, which were located on the pylons of wings. The plane had rockets of type C-5, 32 they were things. The power plant was presented to the engine R-11F who gave afterburner power 5740 kgs.

The aircraft produced only a year, and was built 83 apparatus. This generation also include a modification of the MiG-21F-13, which was produced to 65 years. It featured a more powerful engine and the fact that in the complex weapons included missiles.

MiG-21

The second generation was represented by MiG-21P. It was created as an all-weather interceptor. It has been found better locating equipment and guidance system of the "Azure." The power plant was exactly the same as on the previous model. Is different weaponry, which was represented by two guided missile K-13.

Another machine of this generation is the modification of the MiG-21PFS, or, as it means the product 94. Its special feature is the new system that conducts blow-off with the flaps of the boundary layer. This system allowed to carry out flights from unpaved airfields. Especially for this improved engine system designers, namely worked selection system air flow from the compressor. All this has reduced the take-off run-up to 480 meters.

To this generation include export aids and reconnaissance aircraft, which carried on the pylons of the containers with the intelligence apparatus.

By the third generation of machines include the MiG-21, which began to produce 65 years. Machines such as the MiG-21S had a qualitatively new system of on-board equipment under the designation "Sapphire-21». It was possible to detect enemy targets at a distance of 30 kilometers.

MiG-21

The armament was also improved and presented with R-3R class missiles, which were equipped with a radar head, which made it possible to manufacture the projectile homing. The aircraft also had large-caliber guns, as in previous models. Also included in the armament were unguided rockets, which were attached to the fenders. Here you could install additional fuel tanks. The aircraft of this generation had a more advanced autopilot class AP-155, which could keep the car flat and horizontal in relation to the axes. Apparatuses of this class were manufactured up to 68 year.

In addition to the above mentioned devices of different generations, Mikoyan Design Bureau has produced a lot of aircraft MiG-21 for more specialized tasks. It was issued as training machines and experimental. All of this was the fact that this model is a quality fighter fighting machine that is in demand all over the world.

 

 

MiG-21 photo

MiG-21 - Multipurpose Fighter 2

 

MiG-21 available in the following versions:

  • MiG-21 F (product 72);

  • MiG-21 F-14 (74);

  • MiG-21 have, (66 - 400), trainer;

  • MiG-21 have, (66 - 600), trainer;

  • MiG-21 PF (76);

  • MiG-21 PFM (77), MiG-21 FL;

  • MiG-21 PFM (94);

  • MiG-21 CSS (68), trainer;

  • MiG-21 C (95);

  • MiG-21 M (96);

  • MiG-21 CM (MF MiG-21, 96);

  • MiG-21 P (94R);

  • MiG-21 yM (69) - trainer;

  • MiG-21 CMT;

  • MiG-21 encore.

 

Power plant: One turbojet thrust TL 8600 kg (with afterburner).

 

Specifications MiG-21:

A type
MiG-21-13 F
MiG-21 PFM
MiG-21 MF
Wingspan, m
. 7,15
. 7,15
. 7,15
Length m
. 15,76
13.85
13.46
Height, m
. 4,1
4.125
. 4,1
Wing area. sq.m.
22.95
22.45
22.95
Empty weight, kg
890
-
-
Launch weight, kg
7370-8625
7775-9080
8200-9400
Maximum speed at height, km / h
2125 / 12 500
2175 / 12 500
0723.068.082 / 0723.592.741
Landing speed,
km / h
260-270
 
 
Ceiling, m
19 000
19600
16000
The radius of the flight, km
1300
1370
1100
Radius with drop tanks, km
1580
1680
1800
Flight Duration
1 37 hours, minutes and hours 1 56 minutes
1 47 hours, minutes and hours 2 09 minutes
1 40 hours minutes
Engine
Z11F-300
R11F2-300
R13-300
Start the engine power, KN
38.25
42.25
50
weaponry
Cannon 1NR-30 / 2K-13 and 2 16x2 missiles or bombs
2XI-XI Cancer. Or 2x16 cancer. 57 2 mm or bomb 50-500 kg
Cannon 1GSH-23 4 96 missile missiles 57 4 mm or bomb

 

Aircraft

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It is well known that the perfection of the aircraft structure can be judged by the number of modifications which it stands. And the best proof is the story of the MiG-21.
At a stage of the next aggravation of relations with China, the government of the USSR still handed over technical documentation for the construction of a new supersonic aircraft to the specialists of the Celestial Empire. But the Soviet consultants were recalled, the "live" specimen was not provided, only incomplete airplanes for the trial series - sort it out as you like, and for that be thankful. And the Chinese figured out, so much so that the number of modifications made by J-7 (this designation was received by MiG-21) is comparable to domestic ones. The car was successfully exported, often to the same countries where the "Big Brother" flew from the USSR. The development of J-7 took a different path than the MiG-21. The Chinese improved the quality of the front-line fighter in the plane. J-7E and J-7G with a modified wing for maneuverability exceeded all the "twenty-first". Specialists of the Celestial Empire installed on board English, Italian, French equipment, so that the Chinese "MiG" was comparable to the developed later fighters of the fourth generation. Until recently, the aerobatic team 1 Augusta, composed of air force pilots of China, performed on J-7GB aircraft. The Soviet MiG-21 has long been written off and forgotten, and the Chinese, despite a solid 50-year-old age, continue to fly in the 21st century.

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