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MiG-21 - Multipurpose fighter
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MiG-21 - Multipurpose fighter

MiG-21 - Multipurpose fighter

 

 

Multipurpose fighter CB A. AND. Mikoyan - one of the best aircraft in its class. The first flight of this fighter was made 28 May 1958 city (Test Pilot - Hero of the Soviet Union V. A. Nefedov). In the same year began mass production of second-generation fighter. For more than four decades, from the day of the combat aircraft in part to the present day, it is in service not only in the country of its establishment, but also in many other countries. MiG-21 produced under license in the factories of Czechoslovakia (in 1962-1966 years.), India (in 1966-1969 years.), In China (with 1964 city). The aircraft, released in China, had the designation "Hian» F7. The fighting in Korea (19501953 years.) Showed great potential Soviet MiGs in aerial combat with a strong air enemy, fought in modern American-made aircraft.

MiG-21

Analyses showed that the Soviet MiG-15 along with the benefits have disadvantages compared with the aircraft "Sabre". Already 1954, the work began on the development of a new perspective of modern fighter aircraft, the design of which allows to upgrade combat vehicle during operation.

Accumulated years of experience Mikoyan Design Bureau contributed to his team successfully and in a timely manner to solve one of the most important tasks of the state level.

The prototype of the MiG-21 were prototypes of aircraft with swept and delta wing's own CB: E-2, E-4 / 1, E-4 / 2, E-5, E-6, E-50 / 1, E-50 / 3, E-7.

The history of the MiG-21

This unit really can be called the most famous and prominent fighter who belongs to the second and the third generation of the future. This machine is the most actively used in 60-70-ies of the last century.

MiG-21

This plane is made of aluminum and its alloys, wherein substantially all the connections were made by means of rivets. The fuselage had a normal circuit device structure. He was placed low wings that have arrow-shaped. The whole body is represented as a semi-monocoque, which is equipped with four side members.

When designing the designers created two devices with the designation MiG-21, which had significant differences between them. First, as mentioned earlier, he had swept wings and has designated as the E-2, and the second car had triangular wings and designated cipher E-4. Oddly enough, these differences were due to the fact that while designers could not accurately calculate, with some wing aircraft can reach a maximum speed, and they decided to check it out in practice.

MiG-21

The new fighter was very similar to its predecessor, namely, the MiG-19. The main difference was that the new machine was equipped with a single engine, wing profile has become thinner. The new air intake has been regulated, allowing to optimize engine performance. All of this was the fact that the aircraft could reach a maximum speed in 1700 km / h. It should be noted that the data speed performance at that time were no longer enough. Also, the designers saw a lack of control of the machine, as when maneuvering at high speeds turn up their noses and went into a tailspin. This problem was solved by the installation of the wings aerodynamic ridges.

Designers also resorted to replacing the engine with a more powerful, allowing to achieve high speeds by plane E-2, and the maximum speed was 1900 km / h. The device with the designation E-4 also had a number of shortcomings that had to be corrected designers. In spite of all, the main goal was to increase the speed of flight, even the leadership supports this position. It is in 60-70-ies was a very active arms race between the Union and the United States. In order to show all its power, these countries have actively participated in armed conflicts in different parts of the globe.

It should be noted that this project was developed for a very long time, since the modernization of MiG-21 1989 performed even in the year. With the improvements on the plane has been found more modern equipment that could significantly increase the fighting qualities of the machine. After these improvements, this machine could not inferior in quality to foreign analogues.

MiG-21 cabin

The aircraft type MiG-21 can rightly be called the most massive machine, which is manufactured serially over 28 86 years until the year. She was in service in many countries of the world.

The modifications of the MiG-21

For all the long time of manufacture of the machine designers performed revision and improvement. Due to this, there are three generations of this unit.

The first generation is a plane which is designated as the MiG-21F. This front-line fighter produced with 1959 years. He had quite powerful weapons, which was represented by two 30-millimeter cannon type HP-30, which were located on the pylons of wings. The plane had rockets of type C-5, 32 they were things. The power plant was presented to the engine R-11F who gave afterburner power 5740 kgs.

The aircraft produced only a year, and was built 83 apparatus. This generation also include a modification of the MiG-21F-13, which was produced to 65 years. It featured a more powerful engine and the fact that in the complex weapons included missiles.

MiG-21

The second generation was represented by MiG-21P. It was created as an all-weather interceptor. It has been found better locating equipment and guidance system of the "Azure." The power plant was exactly the same as on the previous model. Is different weaponry, which was represented by two guided missile K-13.

Another machine of this generation is the modification of the MiG-21PFS, or, as it means the product 94. Its special feature is the new system that conducts blow-off with the flaps of the boundary layer. This system allowed to carry out flights from unpaved airfields. Especially for this improved engine system designers, namely worked selection system air flow from the compressor. All this has reduced the take-off run-up to 480 meters.

To this generation include export aids and reconnaissance aircraft, which carried on the pylons of the containers with the intelligence apparatus.

By the third generation of machines include the MiG-21, which began to produce 65 years. Machines such as the MiG-21S had a qualitatively new system of on-board equipment under the designation "Sapphire-21». It was possible to detect enemy targets at a distance of 30 kilometers.

MiG-21

Armament was also improved and presented missiles R-3R which were equipped with radar head, which allows homing missile. The aircraft had a large-caliber gun, and as on previous models. Also, the weapons included rockets, which are mounted on the fender liner. Here you can install and additional fuel tanks. On airplanes of this generation has been more advanced class autopilot AP-155, which could keep the car flat and horizontally in relation to the axles. The devices of this class were made up to 68 years.

In addition to the above mentioned devices of different generations, Mikoyan Design Bureau has produced a lot of aircraft MiG-21 for more specialized tasks. It was issued as training machines and experimental. All of this was the fact that this model is a quality fighter fighting machine that is in demand all over the world.

 

 

MiG-21 photo

MiG-21 - Multipurpose Fighter 2

 

MiG-21 available in the following versions:

  • MiG-21 F (product 72);

  • MiG-21 F-14 (74);

  • MiG-21 have, (66 - 400), trainer;

  • MiG-21 have, (66 - 600), trainer;

  • MiG-21 PF (76);

  • MiG-21 PFM (77), MiG-21 FL;

  • MiG-21 PFM (94);

  • MiG-21 CSS (68), trainer;

  • MiG-21 C (95);

  • MiG-21 M (96);

  • MiG-21 CM (MF MiG-21, 96);

  • MiG-21 P (94R);

  • MiG-21 yM (69) - trainer;

  • MiG-21 CMT;

  • MiG-21 encore.

 

Power plant: One turbojet thrust TL 8600 kg (with afterburner).

 

Specifications MiG-21:

A type
MiG-21-13 F
MiG-21 PFM
MiG-21 MF
Wingspan, m
. 7,15
. 7,15
. 7,15
Length m
. 15,76
13.85
13.46
Height, m
. 4,1
4.125
. 4,1
Wing area. sq.m.
22.95
22.45
22.95
Empty weight, kg
890
-
-
Launch weight, kg
2001-2003
2001-2003
2001-2003
Maximum speed at height, km / h
2125 / 12 500
2175 / 12 500
2230 / 11000
Landing speed,
km / h
2001-2003
 
 
Ceiling, m
19 000
19600
16000
The radius of the flight, km
1300
1370
1100
Radius with drop tanks, km
1580
1680
1800
Flight Duration
1 37 hours, minutes and hours 1 56 minutes
1 47 hours, minutes and hours 2 09 minutes
1 40 hours minutes
Engine
Z11F-300
R11F2-300
R13-300
Start the engine power, KN
38.25
42.25
50
weaponry
Cannon 1NR-30 / 2K-13 and 2 16x2 missiles or bombs
2XI-XI Cancer. Or 2x16 cancer. 57 2 mm or bomb 50-500 kg
Cannon 1GSH-23 4 96 missile missiles 57 4 mm or bomb

 

Aircraft

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It is well known that the perfection of the aircraft structure can be judged by the number of modifications which it stands. And the best proof is the story of the MiG-21.
At the stage of the next exacerbation of relations with China, the Soviet government still has transferred technical documentation for the construction of a new supersonic aircraft specialists of China. But Soviet advisers recalled, "live" copies are not provided only incomplete aircraft sets for test series - sort it out as you want, and for this, be thankful. And the Chinese figured out, so much so that the number of modifications made J-7 (such designation received MiG-21) is comparable to domestic ones. The machine has successfully delivered for export, often in the same countries where the summers are "big brother" of the USSR. Development of the J-7 went a different path than the MiG-21. The Chinese have improved in quality front-line fighter aircraft. J-7E and J-7G with a modified wing maneuverability superior to all the "twenty-first." Experts China established on board English, Italian, French equipment, making China "MiG" was comparable to developed much later than the fourth-generation fighter. Until recently, the aerobatic team «1 August", composed of Air Force pilots of China performed on aircraft J-7GB. Soviet MiG-21 long been written off and forgotten, and the Chinese, despite the considerable age of fifty, continue to fly in the XXI century.

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