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MiG-105 is an experimental aircraft for orbital flights. A feature of the machine was also the fact that he was the manager of the pilot. This unit has been designed in the design office of Mikoyan during the active development of the program "Spiral".

The history of the MiG-105

At the end of the year 1965 orbital program within the Council of Ministers issued a decree on the establishment of a machine that could produce flying in orbit. This aircraft was controlled pilot and was moving at subsonic speeds, making it difficult to perform this task. A special feature was the fact that the machine had to be put into orbit by a rocket-type P-7.


After the end of the design and manufacturing of aircraft ground tests have been initiated since December 75 years. Flight tests began in the autumn of 1978 years. The first launch of the MiG-105 was carried off the plane Tu-95 and ended in the accident. When planting was heavily damaged chassis and body orbital plane.

Design features of the MiG-105

The device is made MiG-105 the type of "tailless". The scheme was to design the most effective to provide flight to orbit the planet. The aircraft has a low wing, single-fin tail car. The aircraft was equipped with a single engine, which has been placed at the bottom of the tail section. With regard to aircraft landing gear, it was represented by four legs. Aircraft of this type of housing swept different angle sweep was 78 percent. The upper part of the body was rounded, and the bottom was completely flat.


With regard to aircraft parts, they had four. The bow section was designed for on-board equipment, this was posted cockpit. The second section is a farm and its frame. As to the third compartment, then it was located panel on which are mounted an air intake TRD. The fourth section was presented heat resistant screen which is located under the hood.

Farm MiG-105 in its design reminiscent of a farm on the American plane X-20. It had a frame, which has been welded. It was made of high-strength steel grade VNS-2. The design of the farm has been well thought out, whereby it takes up little space, allowing, in turn, a more compact power plant and place the other equipment of the aircraft. In addition, designers have been taken into account the thermal load, which could adversely affect the pilot.

MiG-105 dashboard

At the bottom of the Central Division of the fuel tanks were deployed, they were an integral part of the power circuit of the farm. The tail part of the machine was equipped with an air intake, which had adjustable louvers for the air supply to the engine. Department equipment and the cockpit were lining sheets of metal together, they were bolted. In this way, this design has formed a rescue capsule for the pilot. The pilot of the MiG-105 could get in only through the cabin hatch in the top of the machine.

Installed in the bottom of the aircraft shield protects the device from heat during flight and was carrying surface. The screen was also made of sheet metal which has been welded. For greater reliability and strength metal construction profiles were used. The inner part of the screen has a thermal insulating material. A feature of this screen is that it is attached to the body by svobodnoorientiruyuschihsya Thunder. This allows you to remove stress from the metal when it is overheated. In addition, the designers have thought through system of stress relief and metal deformations at non-uniform heating. Most of the unit panels are removable, allowing you to more easily get to the units of the plane.


The wings of the MiG-105 have arrow-shaped, sweep angle is 55 percent. As in the other planes, the wings are attached to the machine frame. But the main difference between them is that they can turn a significant corner, and it is up to 30 degrees up. This was done in order to make flights in different modes. Rotation of the wing by means of an automatic drive system. With regard to the aircraft tail, it was performed in a swept-back shape. It relates feathering tail fin and rudder height on top of the plane balancing flaps were installed. All aircraft management was entirely mechanical and is delivered in the standard airplane handles and pedals.

Chassis MiG-105 consists of four pillars on which were fastened skis, but the initial flight test stands were equipped with wheels to take off from the airfield. All racks are cleaned in the middle of the cabinet. Chassis release provides pneumatic system of the aircraft.


In the picture the numbers indicate:

  1. forward fuselage

  2. left front landing gear

  3. right front landing gear

  4. chassis plates

  5. aft fuselage

  6. right wing

  7. left outer wing

  8. fairings wing panels

  9. keel and rudder

  10. right rear landing gear

  11. rear left landing gear

  12. heat shield

  13. bracing the joint head

  14. rear fuselage


The power plant unit MiG-105 was represented by a jet engine development Kolesov, designated as RD36-35K. He weighed in 176 kilos while providing power to the car 2000 kgs. Fuel unit has been placed in the tank, which is located in the center section of the machine. For the MiG-105 500 stock of fuel in liters it was enough only for 10 minutes flight at full thrust. This engine allows you to perform off from the airfield without starting the aircraft.

MiG-105 Video

The aircraft of this model was equipped with a standard set of avionics and navigation devices, which are placed in the cockpit.

MiG-105 characteristics:

  • Crew: 1 people

  • Length: 8 m (8,5 m subsonic equivalent)

  • Wingspan: 7,4 (6,4) m

  • Height: 3,5 m

  • Wing area:

  • Empty weight: 10300 kg (4220)

  • Engines: TRD RD-36-35K

  • Maximum Thrust: 2350 kgs (2000)

  • Maximum speed at the ground: 250-280 km / h



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The euphoria of the fact of the conquest of space by man in military circles quite quickly turned into anxiety. By water, land and air added undiscovered near-Earth space, where you can now be expected to attack (however, the possibility of pre-emptive strike is not excluded). Therefore, the question was raised on the design of game (aerospace systems), the theoretical foundations of which were laid by F. Zander. One of the developments that have come to the stage of creating a full-scale specimens, was the project "Spiral". The principle is that a reusable spaceship via the carrier transported to an intermediate height of the thirty-kilometer, followed by "on their own" reached Earth orbit, a mission, for example, destroy enemy satellites, and carried out a landing. Designing such an aircraft was tasked OKB AI Mikoyan, and the first step was the manufacture of subsonic sample, known as the MiG-105. The small size of aircraft type "tailless" had swept-bearing fuselage welded truss, a triangular rotary wing and Four chassis. Committed as separate flights and starts with the carrier (TU-95K) Self planting. Year life of the MiG-105 ended the accident, and the whole project was soon recognized as unpromising. Now the only analogue of the Soviet spacecraft stored in the Air Force Museum.