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Mechanization of the wing of the aircraft. Description. Photo. Video.
The term "mechanization of the wing" in English sounds like «high lift devices», which literally - a device for increasing the lift. That is what is the main purpose of mechanization of the wing, and where the plane belonging to the mechanization of the wing, and how to increase lift, and why they need it - this article will tell.
Mechanization of the wing - the list of devices that are installed on the wing of the plane to change its characteristics during the different stages of the flight. The main purpose of an airplane wing - creating lift. This process depends on several parameters - speed of the aircraft, the air density, the area of the wing and its lift coefficient.
Mechanization wing directly affects the area of the wing and its lift coefficient, and indirectly by its velocity. The lift coefficient is dependent on the curvature of the wing and its thickness. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the mechanization of the wing apart from the wing area also increases its curvature and thickness profile.
In fact not the case, because the increase in the thickness of the profile associated with great technological difficulties, is not as effective and more increases the drag, because the item must be dropped, respectively, the mechanization of the wing area and increases its curvature. This is done by moving parts (planes) located at certain points of the wing. By location and functions, the mechanization of the wing is divided into flaps, slats and spoilers (Interceptor).
The flaps of the aircraft. The main types.
Flaps - first invented varieties of mechanization of the wing, they are also the most effective. They were widely used before the Second World War, and its length and after the design has been finalized and, as well, were invented new types of flap. The main characteristics, which indicate that this flap is really it - its location and manipulations that happen to him. Flaps are always on the trailing edge of the wing, and always fall down and, moreover, may be made earlier. When lowering the flap increases the curvature of the wing, with his nomination - area. And if the lift of the wing is directly proportional to its area and lift coefficient, if both values are increasing, the flap performs its function effectively. On your device, and manipulation of the flaps are divided into:
- simple flaps (the first and most simple form of the flap)
- Panel-mounted flaps
- slotted flaps
- Fowler flaps (the most effective and most widely used in civil aviation kind of flap)
How do all of these flaps function shown in the diagram. Simple flap, as seen from the scheme, just deflected trailing edge downward. Thus, the curvature of the wing is increased, but the low pressure area above the wing is reduced, because simple flaps are less effective than the shield, the upper edges of which are not deflected and the region of low pressure loses in size.
Slit flap gets its name because it cracks formed after the rejection. This slot allows passage of the air stream to a low pressure and it is directed so as to prevent flow separation (a process during which the magnitude of the lifting force decreases sharply), giving it extra energy.
Fowler flap pushed back and down, what increases the area and the curvature of the wing. Usually, it is designed so that when the nomination also created slit or two or even three. Accordingly, it performs its function most efficiently and can produce an increase in lifting force to 100%.
Slats. Main functions.
Slats - deflecting surface at the leading edge of the wing. Its structure and functions are similar to the Fowler Flaps - deflected forward and downward, and slightly increasing the curvature of the area to form a slot for the passage of the air flow to the upper edge of the wing, thus contributing to increase lift. Slats, simply drop down, that do not create a gap called the flap and only increase the curvature of the wing.
Spoilers and tasks.
Spoilers. Before considering the spoilers, it should be noted that the establishment of additional lift all listed devices creates additional drag that leads to a decrease in speed. But this occurs as a consequence of increasing lift while spoilers problem - particularly significant increase in drag and pressing plane to the ground after touching. Accordingly, it is the only device-lift, which is located on the upper surface and is deflected upward, and this creates downforce.
And why do you need to increase the lift? Generally requires less increase in lift, as the aircraft speed decrease, at least in civil aviation. As these two values are directly related, and therefore occurs at the expense of one another.
Reducing the speed necessary during takeoff and landing to ensure greater safety and reduce the length of the runway. In addition, combat aircraft often when performing a particular maneuver is necessary to quickly increase or decrease the lift, which serves the mechanization of the wing.
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