Lodygin, Rykachev, Konovalov - people in the world of helicopters
XIX century was the century of the huge technological progress. The improvement of the steam engine, the invention of the internal combustion engine, the introduction of electricity, construction and the first flight of an airplane, the invention of radio, the appearance of the propeller on the boat - all these successes showed great achievements in science and technology. In Russia in the XIX century, work continued on a helicopter.
In 1869 of AN Lodygin famous Russian electrical engineer, presented the project "Electrical summer", which took two screws - pulling and carrying that had to be rotated by an electric motor 300 l. from.
Elektrolet, according to calculations, should weigh about 500 pounds (8000 kg).
Academician MD Rykachev, a prominent Russian meteorologists, 1870-1871 years. conducted a study of horizontal rotating propellers of the helicopter at the facility, which allows to determine the screw and pull the power needs for its rotation. Rykachev worked on the helicopter that would have changed the direction of flight by changing the direction of the axis of the screw.
In 1895, the master Sestroretsk factory VP Konovalov suggested a helicopter with two screws that are cited by the rotation of two petrol engines with a total capacity in liters 37. from. Screws with three steel blades, each rotating in a horizontal plane, should, according to the author of the project, to provide lift and a helicopter flight with a total weight in kg 600.
In 1897, the inventor of P. Bykov offered helicopter project, which was supposed to fly with the help of human muscle power. Helicopter-bike, pictured, it was equipped with a "Archimedes screw", changing the inclination of the axis of rotation, which, the author of the project thought it possible to carry out all kinds of flight - from the climb and make up to level flight. This unit could weigh with the man some more 100 kg.
All of these and many other projects which were born in this country, despite its sometimes fantastic, have almost all of the design elements that were later used in the construction of modern helicopters.
Thus, in the project "aerodromic machine" Lomonosov torque reaction quenched by installing two coaxial propellers, which are widely used at present. Lomonosov also applied to four-bladed propeller, which are installed on helicopters of modern design. Block scales by Lomonosov to test its model used to study the propellers.
Driving Lodygina with one screw as the carrier, and the other as pulling, used in the construction of gyroplanes.
Driving helicopter Konovalov is a prototype is now widespread twin screw helicopter with longitudinal screws.
Tilt rotor, the type of project Bykov, to create a single screw both lift and thrust, albeit in a somewhat modified form, (used on each helicopter.
Even in these, not all projects belonging to Russian inventors, can judge the genius of the Russian people, the creative thought that far ahead of the art of his time.
However, the absence of the theory of flight and helicopter first theory of operation of the rotor, and the lack of material resources for the construction of helicopters hectares experiments did not allow all these inventions come out of scope of the project.
In fact, a general lack of projects was Lodygina LN, V. Konovalov, AI Bykov? Low power density, ie. E. A huge discrepancy between the weight of the helicopter and of the power of the propulsion system, by means of which the air was supposed to lift this weight. For every kilogram of body weight had to 0,005 0,062 from l. from.
With a power density (installed power) up in the air it was impossible. It will become clear.
Considering that modern helicopters have a power density of about 0,2-0,25 l. a. / kg and aircraft piston engine - up to 0,7 l. p. / kg.
The draft also Lodygina, Konovalov and Bykov per kilogram of body weight accounted for a much smaller capacity than today's helicopters. Obviously, the reason for this is not enough to bury in clear view of the rotor and its capabilities.
In order to resolve this contradiction, it was necessary to spend huge research work, it was necessary to build prototypes of helicopters, "and what was needed cash. The tsarist government, kowtow to all foreign, stubbornly refused to funds for research and experimental Russian inventors.
Thus, the Chief Engineer's Office denied the means to build "elektroleta" Lodygina; We did not receive funds for projects Konovalov and Bulls.
The last years of the XIX century and the first years of the XX century were marked by important scientific and experimental work on the theory of the propeller, which were conducted by Russian scientists and especially Nikolai Zhukovsky.
These studies served as the basis for further development of the helicopter.
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