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Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
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Lockheed L-1011 TriStar

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar

 

 

Lockheed L1011 Traistariu (Lockheed L1011 TriStar), often referred to simply as TriStar or L1011, was the world's third largest passenger widebody jet air liner after Boeing 747 и McDonnellDouglas DC10. As DC-0, TriStar was equipped with three motors. Lockheed Corporation from the 1968 1984 released for about 250 L1011. The company Lockheed after the appearance L1011 TriStar went to the market for commercial air transport the MOH to the decrease in sales lower than planned values.

History of construction

American Airlines in 1960 turned to rival companies Douglas (later McDonnell Douglas) and Lockheed with a request to create a smaller aircraft in comparison with Boeing 747, but capable of carrying a large number of passengers over long distances, for example, to Latin America and London from junctions Airports of the airline company, which are located in New York and Dallas. In general, Lockheed was not present in the civil aircraft manufacturing sector since the end of the 1950s due to the difficulties associated with the Lockheed L188 Electra, which suffered several disasters due to problems with wing vibration (flutter) at the very beginning of operation. However, after the difficulties that Lockheed was experiencing, working on its military projects, the company intended to return to the civil aviation market and for this step the facility was L1011 TriStar. Initially, they intended to create an airplane equipped with two motors, but later decided to go to the scheme, which includes the third engine.

 

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar photo

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar

 

The project saw the room with 2 aisles, low noise pollution (Eastern Air Lines in the early 1970-x called L1011 WhisperLiner (translated as "Whispering liner"), economical operation and high reliability. American Airlines has selected Douglas DC10, although it showed an interest in L1011. Thus aviation company wanted to convince Douglas to lower prices DC10 and eventually achieved the same success.

The release of TriStar without the support of American Airlines was held on orders from Eastern AirLines and Trans World Airlines. Although the TriStar's design schedule did not lag far behind its competitors, Douglas DC10 almost a year ahead of Lockheed because of its power problems. Having incurred significant expenses related to the development of turbofan engines for TriStarRB211 in February 1971, RollsRoyce reported bankruptcy. This suspended the final assembly of L1011, but at that time it was too late to change the supplier of motors (the alternative was Pratt & Whitney or General Electric). The British government provided a huge government subsidy to restore the Rolls-Royce if the US government guaranteed Lockheed bank loans needed to complete L1011. The American government agreed to such a step, since Lockheed (which was weakened by itself by these difficulties), in case of failure, it would completely lose the market for RB211 engines. Despite the opponents, one of whom was Ronald Reagan, then the governor of California, the US government has given such guarantees.


 

Designed to transport 400 passengers, TriStar has a scheme according to which the Rolls-Royce turbofan engine was located under the wings, and the third motor is at the base of the vertical stabilizer. The production was carried out at the Palmdale factory in California and Lockheed in Burbank. TriStar faced stiff competition from direct competitors: Boeing 747 and Douglas DC10, built on a similar scheme. In the 1980 years, during the greatest fear of the reliability of DC10, which was used by most competitors, the Trans World Airlines aviation company declared TriStar in its advertisement one of the safest aircraft in the world. Nevertheless, 446 DC10 was sold against 250 TriStar - partly due to delays in the production of TriStar, partly due to the fact that the version of the liner with a longer flight range was not initially introduced on the market. RollsRoyce's expenses under the state leadership were tightly controlled, as a result, the firm's efforts resulted in the production of the original TriStar engines, which required significant improvements in the period between the test flight and commissioning.

 

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar Salon

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar Salon

 

General Electric Company, a competitor of Rolls-Royce, the engine quickly developed CF6, kotoyry has greater traction, which allowed the appearance on the market of heavy intercontinental Douglas DC10-30. The flexibility afforded to potential buyers DC10, kotoyry had a greater range of flight, threatening the competitiveness of L1011. Rolls-Royce took the proektirvoanie RB211524 engines with increased thrust for modifications L1011-200 and -500, but it took many years of work.

The main external features of the difference TriStar from DC10 were in different places of location of the tail (average) engine: on the DC10 the engine was suspended above the fuselage, which produced a lot of power, while the TriStar motor was attached in the tail part in the S-shaped tunnel (as in the TU -154 and Boeing 727), which gave increased strength and reduced noise level. Early variations of L1011, such as -NNUMX, -1, and -100, differed from late models by the type of mid-engine nacelle. Gondolas of earlier versions were equipped with a round air intake opening, and in later models a vertical small keel was installed between the top of the fuselage and the lower part of the motor.

History operation in civil aviation

Civilian operators: TriStar, Air Atlanta Icelandic, TAAG Air Angola, AeroPeru, Aer Lingus, Air Canada, Air Luxor, Air France, SriLankan Airlines, Air Transat, TAP Air Portugal, Arrow Air, All Nippon Airways, British Airways, ATA Airlines, Caledonian Airways, British Caledonian, Cathay Pacific, BWIA, Delta Air Lines, Court Line, EuroAtlantic, Eastern Air Lines, Hawaiian Airlines, Faucett, Fine Air, Gulf Air, LTU, Iberia LAE, National Airlines, Luzair, Pan Am, Orient Thai,Pacific, Southwest Airlines, Peach Air, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Skygate, Trans World Airlines, Worldways Canada, United Airlines, Royal Jordanian ,.

Delta AirLines - the largest customer Lockheed. Outside the US, the largest operator of this type of aircraft has become eventually the airline Cathay Pacific, the way most people having bought the aircraft after Eastern AirLines went bankrupt, having 21 plane.

All the big airline companies have stopped using the plane. Cathay Pacific ceased operation in October 1996 fleet L1011, replacing it Airbus A330-300. Aviation Company in 1997 TWA flight last year stopped TriStar TriStar Delta Airlines exploited to 2001 years later replacing it with Boeing767-400ER.

 

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar scheme salon

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar scheme salon

 

Features Lockheed L1011-1 TriStar:

 

Length: 54.2m.

Height: 16.7m.

Wingspan: 47.3m.

Wing area: 321.1kv.m.

Cruising speed: 0,9M.

Maximum speed: 0,95M.

Flight range: 7419km.

Ceiling: 10670m.

Number of seats: 253 places (3klassa).

Crew: 3cheloveka.

The scale of the horizontal tail: 21.8m.

Empty weight: 101867kg.

Maximum takeoff weight: 195000kg.

Engines: 3xRolls-Royce RB21122.

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