Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
Lockheed L1011 Traistariu (Lockheed L1011 TriStar), often referred to simply as TriStar or L1011, was the world's third largest passenger widebody jet air liner after Boeing 747 и McDonnellDouglas DC10. As DC-0, TriStar was equipped with three motors. Lockheed Corporation from the 1968 1984 released for about 250 L1011. The company Lockheed after the appearance L1011 TriStar went to the market for commercial air transport the MOH to the decrease in sales lower than planned values.
History of construction
Airline American Airlines in 1960h years turned to a competitor Douglas (later McDonnell Douglas) and Lockheed request for the establishment of aviation airliner smaller compared with Boeing 747, but who may carry a large number of passengers over long distances, such as in Latin America and London from hubs airports aviation companies, which are located in New York and Dallas. In general, Lockheed was not present in the manufacturing sector, civil aviation aircraft from the end of 1950-ies because of the difficulties that have been associated with Lockheed L188 Electra, several victims of accidents due to problems with the vibration of the wing (flutter) at the beginning of operation. Yet after the difficulties experienced by Lockheed, working on his military projects, the company intended to return to the market of civil aviation and for this step was the means L1011 TriStar. Initially intended to create a plane, equipped with two engines, but later decided to go to a circuit consisting of a third engine.
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar photo
The project saw the room with 2 aisles, low noise pollution (Eastern Air Lines in the early 1970-x called L1011 WhisperLiner (translated as "Whispering liner"), economical operation and high reliability. American Airlines has selected Douglas DC10, although it showed an interest in L1011. Thus aviation company wanted to convince Douglas to lower prices DC10 and eventually achieved the same success.
Release TriStar without the support of American Airlines took place on the orders of the Eastern AirLines and Trans World Airlines. Although the design schedule TriStar lagged slightly from its competitors, Douglas DC10 almost a year ahead of Lockheed due to his problems with the propulsion units. After suffering significant costs associated with the development of turbofan engines for TriStarRB211 February 1971, RollsRoyce company announced bankruptcy. It suspended the final assembly L1011, but at that point to change the supplier of engines it was too late (alternative were Pratt & Whitney and General Electric). The British government has provided a huge government grant for the restoration of the Rolls-Royce, if the US government guaranteed bank loans Lockheed, necessary to complete L1011. The US government has agreed to such a move, as Lockheed (which has been weakened by itself these difficulties), in case of failure would be completely lost for engines RB211 market. Although opponents, one of whom was Ronald Reagan, at the time governor of California, the US government has given such assurances.
Designed for the transportation of passengers 400, TriStar has a scheme under which the turbofan engine of Rolls-Royce was located under the wings, and the third motor is located at the base of the vertical stabilizer. Production was carried out in the factory of Palmdale in California and Lockheed in Burbank. TriStar faced with stiff competition from direct competitors: Boeing 747 and Douglas DC10, constructed in a similar way. In 1980-years during the greatest concerns about the reliability DC10, which was used by most competitors, airline company Trans World Airlines announced TriStar in its advertising one of the safest planes in the world. Nevertheless, it was sold 446 DC10 against 250 TriStar - partly due to delays in the production of TriStar, partly due to the fact that the version of the liner with a greater flight range has been initially introduced to the market. Costs RollsRoyce under government leadership tightly controlled, as a result of the efforts of the company resulted in the production of engines for the original TriStar, which demanded significant improvements in the period between the test flight and putting into use.
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar Salon
General Electric Company, a competitor of Rolls-Royce, the engine quickly developed CF6, kotoyry has greater traction, which allowed the appearance on the market of heavy intercontinental Douglas DC10-30. The flexibility afforded to potential buyers DC10, kotoyry had a greater range of flight, threatening the competitiveness of L1011. Rolls-Royce took the proektirvoanie RB211524 engines with increased thrust for modifications L1011-200 and -500, but it took many years of work.
The main outward signs of differences TriStar from DC10 concluded in a different location of the tail (the average) of the engine: to DC10 engine hung above the fuselage, which gave out a lot of power, while the motor TriStar was attached to the tail of the S-shaped tunnel (on TU -154 and Boeing 727), which gave increased durability and reduced noise. Early variations L1011, such as -1, -100, and -150, differed from the later models of the type of engine nacelles average. Gondolas earlier versions were equipped with an air inlet opening round, and later models have established a small vertical keel of the fuselage between the top and the bottom of the motor.
History operation in civil aviation
Civilian operators: TriStar, Air Atlanta Icelandic, TAAG Air Angola, AeroPeru, Aer Lingus, Air Canada, Air Luxor, Air France, SriLankan Airlines, Air Transat, TAP Air Portugal, Arrow Air, All Nippon Airways, British Airways, ATA Airlines, Caledonian Airways, British Caledonian, Cathay Pacific, BWIA, Delta Air Lines, Court Line, EuroAtlantic, Eastern Air Lines, Hawaiian Airlines, Faucett, Fine Air, Gulf Air, LTU, Iberia LAE, National Airlines, Luzair, Pan Am, Orient Thai,Pacific, Southwest Airlines, Peach Air, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Skygate, Trans World Airlines, Worldways Canada, United Airlines, Royal Jordanian ,.
Delta AirLines - the largest customer Lockheed. Outside the US, the largest operator of this type of aircraft has become eventually the airline Cathay Pacific, the way most people having bought the aircraft after Eastern AirLines went bankrupt, having 21 plane.
All the big airline companies have stopped using the plane. Cathay Pacific ceased operation in October 1996 fleet L1011, replacing it Airbus A330-300. Aviation Company in 1997 TWA flight last year stopped TriStar TriStar Delta Airlines exploited to 2001 years later replacing it with Boeing767-400ER.
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar scheme salon
Features Lockheed L1011-1 TriStar:
Wing area: 321.1kv.m.
Cruising speed: 0,9M.
Maximum speed: 0,95M.
Flight range: 7419km.
Number of seats: 253 places (3klassa).
The scale of the horizontal tail: 21.8m.
Empty weight: 101867kg.
Maximum takeoff weight: 195000kg.
Engines: 3xRolls-Royce RB21122.
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