Pilot-observer - a specialist in exploration management in the interests of air guns (exploration, fire adjustment) and for aerial reconnaissance (observations).
Performance of the work of the pilot-observer
The work of the observer depends on: a) the activities of the enemy aircraft and air defense; b) the atmospheric conditions and visibility (clouds, fog, gender goals and lighting, as well as the nature of the terrain); c) from the harmony of the crew and the preparedness of the observer; g) the remoteness of goals; e) the flight altitude.
Tasks aircraft artillery. The main tasks of the aircraft artillery are exploration targets and monitor the fire.
The special problems of the aircraft artillery are exploration (finding and learning) objectives that could be the subject of further destruction and verification of masking their artillery positions.
Targeting is to transfer the form of goals and position of their center. If necessary, additional dimensions disclosed purpose. When you specify the columns of troops reported: gender column, the length, direction and location of the head of the column.
Types of fire:
b) the control of fire;
Zeroing is determined by the average point breaks located as close as possible to the target (based on the observation of regular series of shots). Control fire can only be carried out by firing a well-known target, after careful preparation of the fire or on the goal, which had previously been carried out zeroing.
Fire to defeat conducted after zeroing or control the fire.
General principles of monitoring artillery fire. The following types of monitoring: surveillance and axial relative to the meridian passing through the center of the target.
When the axial deviation of the observation reported midpoint breaks Group on the battery line - center of the target and perpendicular to it passing through the center of the target.
When viewed with respect to the meridian of reported deviation from the mid-point of the group meridian and parallel, passing through the center of the target.
Order on observation gives the chief of artillery in the battle order determining artillery: a) a strip of observation; artillery pieces, which will be monitored; b) strip the actions of these parts, as well as, if possible, position the district divisions and batteries; c) the kind of goals that must be destroyed (indicating the order of their importance); d) the beginning and duration of the observation; d) the place of posts due to the aircraft, as well as all data related to communication, such as: call signs, wave length, marking cloth and, if necessary, conventional signals.
Under favorable conditions, on sighting required 15 minutes, and fire control - 5 minutes.
Order on shooting at targets known chief of artillery according to information of the aircraft, and artillery units assigned to the fire, indicating: a) the kind and location of targets and, where appropriate point pristrelivaniya; b) the parts that must comply with fire and possible position of the individual battery products; c) the kind of shooting and tasks aircraft artillery; d) the beginning and the order of shooting.
The airplane as a means of communication in the cavalry
Aviation Detachment of Cavalry connections served its negative impact on its use. Therefore, in all cases, when circumstances permit, it is necessary to nominate aircraft forward by selecting landing sites and bringing it closer to the base areas in the cavalry. Practical use of aviation requires, in addition, the presence near the command post of senior cavalry chief auxiliary landing fields.
Aerial connection includes: a) communication within a given Cavalry connection (internal connection) and b) the relationship with its neighbors and with the rear.
Communication within the Cavalry connection. The aircraft as a means of communication within the Cavalry compounds can be used: a) to inform the senior commander of the forward parts of the extended position; b) to transmit his orders subordinate units; c) to establish the best possible cooperation between the equestrian units and give them or part of them with artillery, mechanized units, and so on. d.
Communication upward and downward the airplane, especially under conditions effective exploration and activities protecting moving parts columns; speed and independence from the area make it a most valuable means of communication between the parts of echeloned Cavalry Division. Aircraft in this case do not act in a manner accompanying intelligence or guarding the bodies, and through successive missions to the site of action of these bodies. Departures are made at a predetermined time, at the request of a senior officer or, finally, on the initiative of the pilot-observer, which provides the connection between these bodies with a senior boss.
Communication is carried out as a means of delivering information to his superior about the actions of intelligence units, the floor
tained aircraft as a result of his own observations, and by duplicating the reports sent by intelligence units.
To pilot observer could well put him to perform maintenance tasks on the connection between the intelligence agencies and senior chief, especially in disguised and dismembered the movement of these bodies are kindly requested to familiarize him with the objectives of the proposed action and reconnaissance units. In addition, in all cases it is necessary to strive to ensure that between the head of the intelligence agency and the relevant letchikom- observer has been established direct communication before the beginning of their collaboration. If you install such a contact can not be, the chief intelligence agency shall, by a senior officer to put aviation notified of the planned methods of implementation set him tasks such as: common axis of movement, successive lines, the approximate calculation of the time to achieve them, the probable areas of intelligence units located at each turn at moving by leaps and conditioned signals from the ground cloth.
When a conventional aircraft in the area with some distinctive mark (which must be known to them) reconnaissance units deployed aviasignalnye cloth necessary for Messaging.
If the pilot-observer for some reason does not find in conventional zone to a certain time aviasignalnyh panels, he continues his mission forward to the next milestone. If in this area it will not find reconnaissance units, then it returns to the preceding borders. If not detected, reconnaissance units on established lines (along the axis of movement) pilot observer sent to the central station connection location, the location of which should be known to him exactly, and here receives all the necessary information.
In the offensive or defensive battle cavalry relationship from the bottom up (from the junior to the senior chiefs) takes the form of setting tasks on aircraft support military units. In this case, the pilot-observer watching the movements of his troops and the enemy, set the front lines, monitors the signals that are given to him from the ground command posts of units, leading the fight, and all they had seen and reported by him to the ground lets you know the commander of the Cavalry Division and, if necessary, the chief of artillery, using radio, flares and pennants.
The large cavalry units because of its mobility and flexibility, with particular success using planes as a means of communication between the leading and supporting the fight kavchastyami their artillery. In some cases (for example, during the period of contact with the enemy when the situation is still not clear, and ground-based observation is not sufficient to accurately identify the targets to be in this period shelled) only aircraft with sufficient accuracy to be able to determine the nature and location of interest cavalry purposes and thereby for some time the possibility to provide artillery fire support for cavalry units, have entered into contact with the enemy.
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