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Airplane observer
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Airplane observer

Airplane observer

 

Pilot-observer - a specialist in exploration management in the interests of air guns (exploration, fire adjustment) and for aerial reconnaissance (observations).

Performance of the work of the pilot-observer

 

The work of the observer depends on: a) the activities of the enemy aircraft and air defense; b) the atmospheric conditions and visibility (clouds, fog, gender goals and lighting, as well as the nature of the terrain); c) from the harmony of the crew and the preparedness of the observer; g) the remoteness of goals; e) the flight altitude.

Tasks aircraft artillery. The main tasks of the aircraft artillery are exploration targets and monitor the fire.

The special problems of the aircraft artillery are exploration (finding and learning) objectives that could be the subject of further destruction and verification of masking their artillery positions.

Targeting is to transfer the form of goals and position of their center. If necessary, additional dimensions disclosed purpose. When you specify the columns of troops reported: gender column, the length, direction and location of the head of the column.

 

Types of fire:

  • a) fire;

  • b) the control of fire;

  • c) fire.

 

Zeroing is determined by the average point breaks located as close as possible to the target (based on the observation of regular series of shots). Control fire can only be carried out by firing a well-known target, after careful preparation of the fire or on the goal, which had previously been carried out zeroing.

Fire to defeat conducted after zeroing or control the fire.

General principles of monitoring artillery fire. The following types of monitoring: surveillance and axial relative to the meridian passing through the center of the target.

When the axial deviation of the observation reported midpoint breaks Group on the battery line - center of the target and perpendicular to it passing through the center of the target.

When viewed with respect to the meridian of reported deviation from the mid-point of the group meridian and parallel, passing through the center of the target.

Order on observation gives the chief of artillery in the battle order determining artillery: a) a strip of observation; artillery pieces, which will be monitored; b) strip the actions of these parts, as well as, if possible, position the district divisions and batteries; c) the kind of goals that must be destroyed (indicating the order of their importance); d) the beginning and duration of the observation; d) the place of posts due to the aircraft, as well as all data related to communication, such as: call signs, wave length, marking cloth and, if necessary, conventional signals.

Under favorable conditions, on sighting required 15 minutes, and fire control - 5 minutes.

Order on shooting at targets known chief of artillery according to information of the aircraft, and artillery units assigned to the fire, indicating: a) the kind and location of targets and, where appropriate point pristrelivaniya; b) the parts that must comply with fire and possible position of the individual battery products; c) the kind of shooting and tasks aircraft artillery; d) the beginning and the order of shooting.

 

The airplane as a means of communication in the cavalry

Aviation Detachment of Cavalry connections served its negative impact on its use. Therefore, in all cases, when circumstances permit, it is necessary to nominate aircraft forward by selecting landing sites and bringing it closer to the base areas in the cavalry. Practical use of aviation requires, in addition, the presence near the command post of senior cavalry chief auxiliary landing fields.

Aerial connection includes: a) communication within a given Cavalry connection (internal connection) and b) the relationship with its neighbors and with the rear.

Communication within the Cavalry connection. The aircraft as a means of communication within the Cavalry compounds can be used: a) to inform the senior commander of the forward parts of the extended position; b) to transmit his orders subordinate units; c) to establish the best possible cooperation between the equestrian units and give them or part of them with artillery, mechanized units, and so on. d.

The connection from the bottom to the top and from the top down, carried out by the aircraft, is especially effective in the conditions of reconnaissance and actions of the guarding parts of the moving columns; Speed ​​and independence from the terrain make it the most valuable means of communication between the deeply echeloned parts of the Kavdivision. Airplanes in this case operate not by the method of escorting reconnaissance or guarding bodies, but by successive flights to the place of action of the said bodies. Departures are made at a predetermined time, at the request of the senior chief, or, at the initiative of the pilot-observer, ensuring the connection of these bodies with the senior commander.

Communication is carried out as a means of delivering information to his superior about the actions of intelligence units, the floor

tained aircraft as a result of his own observations, and by duplicating the reports sent by intelligence units.

To ensure that the pilot-observer can best perform his assigned tasks of servicing communications between intelligence agencies and the senior commander, especially in the face of camouflaged and dismembered movement of these bodies, it is necessary to familiarize him in advance with the tasks and alleged actions of reconnaissance units. In addition, in all cases, it is necessary to strive for direct communication between the head of the intelligence agency and the corresponding observer pilot, prior to the commencement of their joint work. If such contact can not be established, the head of the intelligence agency should inform the aviation chief about the planned methods of accomplishing the task assigned to him, such as: the general axis of the traffic, successive lines, an approximate calculation of the time of their achievement, probable areas of the reconnaissance units at each turn at Movement of irregularities and conditional signals from the ground with panels.

When a conventional aircraft in the area with some distinctive mark (which must be known to them) reconnaissance units deployed aviasignalnye cloth necessary for Messaging.

 

Airplane observer

If the pilot-observer for some reason does not find in conventional zone to a certain time aviasignalnyh panels, he continues his mission forward to the next milestone. If in this area it will not find reconnaissance units, then it returns to the preceding borders. If not detected, reconnaissance units on established lines (along the axis of movement) pilot observer sent to the central station connection location, the location of which should be known to him exactly, and here receives all the necessary information.

In the offensive or defensive battle cavalry relationship from the bottom up (from the junior to the senior chiefs) takes the form of setting tasks on aircraft support military units. In this case, the pilot-observer watching the movements of his troops and the enemy, set the front lines, monitors the signals that are given to him from the ground command posts of units, leading the fight, and all they had seen and reported by him to the ground lets you know the commander of the Cavalry Division and, if necessary, the chief of artillery, using radio, flares and pennants.

Large cavalry units, by virtue of their mobility and flexibility, use communication planes as a means between the fighting forces and artillery supporting them with particular success. In some cases (for example, during the period of contact with the enemy, when the situation has not yet been clarified and ground observation is not sufficient to accurately identify the targets that are subject to artillery fire during this period), only the aircraft with sufficient accuracy will be able to establish the nature and location of the targets of interest, and thereby For a certain period of time, to provide artillery with the possibility of supporting by fire the cavalry units that came into contact with the enemy.

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