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Who invented the airplane
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Who created the plane?

Who invented the airplane? Who made the plane? Who invented the airplane?

 

Plane called the aircraft, which is designed for flights in the atmosphere by the power plant, the devotees traction unit. The unit comprises fixed parts, such as wings and fuselage itself. The main difference from the balloon and blimp is the use of aerodynamics and not aerostatics, which creates the lift force during flight.

For the first time the term "plane" was applied in the year 1857 captain NM Sokovnin. It is the word applied for controlled balloon. Also in 1863, journalist AV Ewald used the word "aircraft" in his article "Aeronautics". The article was the first proposal of creating such a flying machine called "airplane."

NM Sokovnin

NM Sokovnin

 

History

Who invented the airplane?

The first historical mention of the aircraft were still in the ancient Indian literature. It describes a hypothetical flying machines - Vimana. In the folklore of almost all nations there mention of the aircraft, such as the flying carpet or stupa, which flew Baba Yaga.

The first investigators, who suggested the concept of a full-fledged flying unit with separate motor and a fixed wing, was an Englishman George Cayley. His works from the late XVIII century.

 

J. Proceedings. Keighley in the aviation field

Developments Kaylee has launched a 1796 years old when he began to actively explore the flight of birds. In 1799 it was made silver disc, which was invented by them caused the aircraft, and on the reverse side of the disc was affixed a diagram of forces that allows the flight. Applied to drive the device was very similar to a boat, but it still had the main parts of the aircraft. Because of this, we can say that J. Kaylee can be considered as the person who thought up all the main parts of airplanes.

With 1804, the researchers conducted a series of experiments related to the aerodynamic properties. Due to this, it has created a new research facility for Rotary surfaces. With this setting, able to measure the force of lifting items depending on the angles of attack. It should be noted that the data was accurate enough. As a result, after the experiments it was established the first glider that could fly up to 27 meters, while the area of ​​the wing was almost 1 square. m.

By 1808 was established another glider with a large wing area and curved profile. The unit was tested on a leash and in free flight. Due to the data Cayley published the first ever article about aviation. The article deals with the possibility of creating a tiltrotor with disk-shaped bearing surfaces and polyplane. These discs are divided into 4 segment, which rotate, thereby creates a lifting force.

Another creation of the designer was recorded in an article Mechanics Magazine. It was a speech about the controlled parachute, which is equipped with a horizontal plane.

Mechanics Magazine

Mechanics Magazine

Yet the greatest achievements is the creation of Keighley aircraft in the full amount. The first machine was built in 1809 year. The car was equipped with a fixed-wing and had a cutout for the pilot landing. Lifting must be carried out with the help of flapping wings, but in the end unit and did not fly. The second device was manufactured in 1894 year on the same principle as its predecessor. The main difference was the presence of a wheeled undercarriage and fuselage in the form of a boat. As the power plant performed a pilot himself, or rather his muscles. As a result, the tests have shown that when accelerating from a slope had the opportunity to take-off, but only with a small load. Raise the adult failed.

The designer was designing other aircraft such as blimps, but further development is not gone.

 

Who invented the airplane?

William Henson Developments

The present invention can be attributed to the English designer William Henson, who 1849 has received a patent for the design of the aircraft.

The aircraft Henson also referred to as "steam air crew." Wing unit had in its structure spars, ribs and racks, all this has been further developed in the aircraft. Wing skin was two-way, because the ribs have different curvature contours. To facilitate the design of the longitudinal beams have been used, it is allowed to make a hollow wing and easier.

The aircraft Henson

The aircraft Henson

The wing was attached to the top of the fuselage. In the package was installed engine that drives two push-type screw. Also, the fuselage had room for passengers and crew.

The tail unit fixed to the rear of the housing. It had moving parts, namely the rudder, keel regard, it was fixed. The design of the device did not have ailerons, whereby the bank could occur, but the designer solves this problem by changing the revolutions of the screws. All of this has been the creation of three-axis chassis with the front wheel.

 

Developments Nicholas Afanasevicha Teleshov

As for the Russian Empire, the first aircraft was proposed by the designer NA Teleshov still 1864 year. The project designer was known as "ballooning system", which according to the original plan should be able to transport passengers on board 120. The aircraft was designed as an all-metal monoplane with a wing located on the upper part of the body. The rectangular cross section of the inside of the fuselage had to have two passenger decks.

ON. Teleshov plane

ON. Teleshov - plane (the project)

It should be noted that the proposed wing had low elongation at large geometric parameters of the fuselage. Wings had a slightly curved profile and pointed to the ends. Double skinned allowed to increase their durability while reducing overall weight. Due to the truss system and braces wings had to withstand heavy overload.

Machine control system carried out by the rudders and height. The entire structure into the air should raise the steam engine, which rotates a screw pusher type. It should be noted that the very power plant was placed in the middle of the housing and screw it together a large tree. To shift the center of gravity of the flying machine must be equipped with an additional weight that must be moved from the foredeck tail or vice versa. The plane had its own system of the chassis, so the run was carried out with the rolling chassis. Of course, all this has not been translated into reality.

 

Development of the aircraft Alexander F. Mozhaiskoye

Naval officer AF Mozhajskij at the end of the XIX century began to actively work on the creation of an aircraft, which later was made a life-size. Unfortunately, the details of the tests are not saved. Still, some sources claim that the full flight did not take place. The maximum achievement was short-lived separation unit with the pilot. As the power plant used steam engine with insufficient capacity.

AF Mozhajskij plane mark

This is not all the world's development of aircraft that used steam engines as power units. Yet the main problem of the failure was the lack of database developments in the field of aerodynamics and designing devices for flight.

 

Who created the plane?

The first plane in the world, which is able to carry out separation and flight. Development of the Wright brothers.

The first successful experience of designing aircraft that could take off, belongs to the Wright brothers. Wilbur and Orville Wright christened his creation as "Flyer-1». The first flight of this aircraft took money 17. 12.1903 years. After separation from the earth car stayed in the air 59 seconds, for which it managed to fly 260 meters. At the designers did not stop, the modified model in 1904 year for the first time been able to carry out the flight in a circle. A year later, in 1905, it was made a distant flight to 39 kilometers along a closed path.

The first plane the Wright brothers

The first plane

The aircraft equipped with a gasoline engine and propeller made of wood, it was set on a wooden frame made of spruce. The wingspan of the machine is equal to 12 meters and weight 283 kilos. It should be noted that the power plant itself, which posed kW 9, 77 weighed a kilogram. On the construction of the whole machine brothers spent about a thousand dollars. High-grade chassis plane Wright had to start using a catapult launch from a wooden flight direction.

 

Home aviation in Russia

It should be noted that the creation of aircraft slightly lagged behind the global developments since made a big bet on the creation of airships, which had planned to use for military purposes. It is also preferred over the creation of helicopters. A prime example is "aircar" designer VV Tatarinov, who in 1909 was allocated for the construction of 50 thousand. In addition, there were many donations and all kinds of help from sponsors. As a result, the project spent large sums of money, and the result is zero. After the failure of this design almost no one constructor could not get subsidies for their own projects, many of whom were promising.

"Aircar" designer VV Tatarinov

Yet after the Wright brothers' luck, the Russian government decided to acquire their own flying machines. At the same time to buy airplane "Flyer-1» did not. It was decided to create a device on its own, but there was one problem - Russian designers have never seen an airplane and are unfamiliar with the peculiarities of its creation. Because of this, it was noted a lot of failures and accidents even if the run-up units.

The first successful flying machine that could fly a few tens of meters without the accident, the aircraft became Kudasheva. Professor Polytechnic Institute in Kiev Alexander Kudashev 1910 years in June was able to fly the machine of his own design.

Development Igor Sikorsky

The most famous design Sikorsky, of course, is the plane "Ilya Muromets", Which was made on the basis of the unit" Russian Vityaz ". It should be noted that the machine is a fundamentally new and significantly different from the first unit. It changed everything, except the general scheme of construction. On the creation of works of a group of the best designers of the country headed by Igor Sikorsky.

plane "Ilya Muromets"

"Muromets" was equipped with four engines of the "Argus" with a capacity of 100 horsepower. This allowed the device has a very high lift. With 1915, some models equipped with engine R-BV3 he had 6 cylinders and equipped with water cooling radiator. This aircraft can truly be considered the world's first aircraft for passenger transport, as was separate from the cockpit interior, bedrooms and even a toilet with a bathtub. Also on board the vehicle had electric lighting and heating from the engine. A great impetus to the development of aircraft construction was the beginning of the First World War.

The first plane "Ilya Muromets" was made in the autumn of 1913 years. More on testing the machine was able to set several world records. The first record was recorded on-duty 12.12.1913 year, when it was possible to fly with 1.1 ton payload on board. Exactly one month set a record with 16 man and one dog on board the unit, with the total weight reached 1,2 tons. Control of the aircraft carried out the designer himself Sikorski.

In 1914 year on the basis of "Murom" hydroplane was made with more powerful engines, it was the largest seaplane in the world prior to 1917 years.

This car belongs to the first flight of the range when it was carried out the flight from St. Petersburg to Kiev with only one landing. During the flight it was achieved, and the maximum altitude in 2 kilometers, while on board was 10 people. All of this took place 05.06.1914 years. Flight managed to pass for 6,5 hours.

All these achievements and developments will contribute to further development of the aviation industry both in Russia and around the world.

See all civil aircraft

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