Cruise missile Fi-103. V-1. (The V-1)
The German side during World War II, used on the Western Front ballistic missiles V-2 (A4) and cruise missiles V-1 (Fi-103). A fundamentally new weapons, despite a number of shortcomings, was effective from a military point of view. Moreover, the experience of its use in combat for a long time, clearly defined its power and leading role in the armed forces of the world. Not the case but that within three to four years after the victory of 1945 the leading countries of the world - the USA, the USSR and the United Kingdom - were armed with this kind of missiles. Rocket V-2 and V-1 designed to solve their problems. The presence of two classes of weapons increases the efficiency and extends the range of their operational use.
The damage caused by missiles during the Second World War, was great - killed civilians, destroyed industrial and civil objects. In a number of reasons, this type of weapon was used in the Soviet-German front. The choice of targets for air attacks against the German side would have no difficulties - Murmansk, Leningrad, the Black Sea region. Work on developing a cruise missile began in Germany in 1930-1940-ies. Flight tests were first conducted in December 24 1942 city The first motor mounted on the Fi-103, was Argus 109-014. Cruise missile was a drone with all the characteristic features of the aircraft: the fuselage, wings, horizontal and vertical stabilizer with elevators and directions. Naturally, the fly-Fi 103 not dependent on weather conditions, and thus, air blows can be applied at any time. The fuselage structure composed of six sections. The material, in addition Duralumin, plywood used.
The element of novelty in the construction of a cruise missile was the autopilot. The flight program, drawn up on the ground, after the launch of the rocket could not be changed. The accuracy of the missile at the target was small deviation was to 15 m. Rockets fell on towns, destroying neighborhoods, as in the massive Allied air bombings of German cities (Dresden, Hamburg ...). Raises the question of whether a new weapon effectively, many or few people died, why it was destroyed few facilities in the UK and so on, is immoral and pointless. Rockets when his "imperfections" (ideological definition) brought into the territory of the enemy much harm. In London it fell 2419 Fi-103, Antwerp - 8696, on Lüttich - 3141 and so on. etc.
Launching a cruise missile was carried out either by using a catapult or from an aircraft carrier. Used bombers Ar-234, not-111.
In Germany, all produced 250 000 instances missiles Fi-103.
As a result of rocket attacks from the Fi-103 5800 killed more people, more than 18 thousand. Man injured. It was destroyed 123 000 buildings. In the fight against the British cruise missiles antiaircraft forces achieved considerable success: 1878 missiles were destroyed by antiaircraft fire, 1847 - fire fighters, 232 killed by collisions with air barrage balloons.
The Soviet Union has got a lot of models of rockets Fi-103 and accessories. But even before the war, work on the creation of a cruise missile based on German documents received intelligence means. It was established Raman 10HN - missiles fired from aircraft Tu-2. We are considering the option of using for this purpose the aircraft Pe-8 with two missiles. Practical application of Russian missiles have not received.
Characteristics of the V-1:
Length, m: 7,75
Wingspan, m: 5,3 (later 5,7)
Fuselage diameter, m: 0,85
Height, m: 1,42 (1,55)
Curb weight, kg: 2160
Engine: 1 PuVRD Argus As 014 2,9 with traction kN (296 kgf)
Maximum airspeed: 656 km / h (approx 0,53M); The speed increases as the relief unit (with fuel) - to 800 km / h (approx. 0,65M).
Maximum range of flight, km: 286
Service ceiling, m: 2700-3050 (in practice, flew at altitudes of up to 100 1000 meters)
Warhead weight, kg: 700-1000, equipment Amatol
Fuel consumption, l / km: 2,35
Tank capacity, l: 550-640, gasoline (80-octane).
The circular error probable (projected), km: 0,9
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