Compass aircraft. Magnetic compass aircraft.
Magnetic compass on the plane detects and stores the course direction of flight. The course of the aircraft - is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and the actual direction of the meridian. It accepted to count rate from the northern direction of the meridian. By ticking the meridian angle clockwise to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. As we know, the course can be magnetic, compass and true.
The principle of operation of each of the compass is based on the action of the magnetic needle, which is installed in the plane of the magnetic meridian in a northerly direction. After determining the magnetic meridian with the compass is counted angle to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft - a magnetic heading. It should be noted that modern compasses are installed in the cockpit, structurally different from the field. The design of aircraft compasses are used materials that exhibit weak magnetic or diamagnetic properties. The basic structural parts of the aircraft compass are: arm, course feature, the device deviation, compass rose, bowler.
Bowler - a vessel made of aluminum or copper, and a hermetically sealed cover glass. The inside of the pot filled with a liquid, usually a naphtha or ethyl alcohol. Replacing or refilling fluid significantly reduces the unit and can lead to the utter uselessness. The liquid serves as a damper and damps vibrations of the card, also reduces the pressure on the studs furnace.
In the middle of the pot is placed a column on which is mounted compass rose. Compass rose - a set of connected magnets that are directed to one another like charged pole. In most cases of the card aircraft compasses consist of two horizontal and two vertical magnets. The magnets should be arranged with a high degree of accuracy, because the slightest shift can cause a deviation from the true parameters. The upper pair of magnets have a much greater magnetic moment than the bottom, in a ratio of 15 CGSm to 12 CGSm. As a result, the total time shall not be less than 54-56 CGSm. The proper selection of magnets and their size depends on the quality of the compass. At the end of the card is set arrow, which points to the horizon, it serves as a guideline in the flight map. Total magnetic system is calculated on 200 hours of operation. Inside the pot coated Lubber line, which is used as an index in the count rate.
Bowler compass plane filled with liquid, temperature changes, its volume change, this can lead to faulty readings. To avoid this situation, set compensation chamber.
This design is used in all modern aircraft compasses. There are differences, they are largely in the form of depreciation or compass card. Also for night mode are used lighting.
Practical use of the compass on the plane shows that its use for the navigator and pilot different. The pilot uses this instrument to select the correct direction of flight. It is used to analyze the loyalty of the flight and to identify deviations from the course. With regard to the co-driver, it uses the compass to quickly calculate flight maps and analysis of the course. Compass Navigator is considered to be the main on-board aircraft ship. Because of this are two types of magnetic compasses aircraft, which are installed on aircraft forest - and this is the main track.
Magnetic deviation of the aircraft
Even at dawn aviation aircraft, without exception, all equipped with a magnetic compass, which copes with the task of determining the magnetic heading device. Yet the further development of multi-engine units with a big part of any major electronics problems with the compass. All electromagnetic waves emanating from other devices, substantially affect the operation and accuracy of the readings. In some cases, compass readings may differ from the real to ten degrees, and it is very much to determine the correct direction of flight. All compasses during the flight test accelerator and magnetic effects which lead to deviations.
Magnetic deviation. Compass system each receives from the various effects of the magnetic fields of both the Earth and other sources of magnetism directly on board the aircraft. It can be radio, wiring, and its fields, and the steel weight of the structure itself. Because of this, the compasses on board the aircraft have errors in their statements, which are called the magnetic deviation.
This parameter deviations can be calculated from the experimental level, while there are three sub-categories of deviation, namely permanent, quarter and semi-circular.
Permanent magnetic deviation on board the aircraft caused by the inaccuracy of the installation of the compass. It is characterized by dependence of the magnetic heading.
Semi-circular magnetic deviation in the deviation of the compass can be caused by so-called hard iron, which has a permanent magnetic charge. Also readings affect more permanent sources such as electrical appliances and wiring components. They have a constant strength and direction of the impact on the compass.
Yet there is such a thing as inertia deviation, which occurs due to turbulence, change the speed, turns, all this creates the forces that influence the testimony of a magnetic compass on board. All this greatly complicates the product and the loyalty rating for directions.
Yet in the manufacture of compasses and aircraft designers themselves consider all these influences and variations. To reduce the external influences on the accuracy of the compass systems are used, which can significantly reduce all the above mentioned effects on the accuracy of the readings.
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