Ejection seat aircraft
Earlier, we discussed procedure bailout from the aircraft.
Ejection seat - a special device which is intended to rescue the pilot or the crew of the aircraft in complex emergencies. Such seats are operated mainly in sports and military aircraft. Furthermore, the first helicopter in which established the ejection seat was Ka-50.
The most advanced models of chairs provide optimum viability of the pilot at all altitudes and speeds of the aircraft, even if the bailout is committed to the earth. Besides aircraft ejection seats were installed on the spacecraft "Vostok". Their operation was provided in emergency situations and for a touchdown in a regulatory environment where the flight was completed.
1 — заголовник; 2 — стабилизирующая штанга; 3 — пиромеханизм системы стабилизации; 4 — пряжка ремня механизма эксплуатационного притягивания плечевых ремней; 5 — лопасть ограничителя рук; 6 — пряжка ремня механизма эксплуатационного притягивания поясных ремней; 7 — ручка механизма эксплуатационного притягивания поясных ремней; 8 — механизм эксплуатационного притягивания поясных ремней; 9 — кресло; 10 — кнопки системы регулирования сиденья; 11 — ручка аварийного включения кислорода; 12 — НАЗ; 13 — ограничитель ноги; 14 — ложемент голеней и ног; 15 — ложемент механизма подъема ног; 16 — щиток дефлектора; 17 — ручка катапультирования; 18 — замок системы фиксации; 19 — система фиксации; 20 — такелажный узел; 21 — свободные концы парашютной системы
There are several schemes disconnecting ejection seat from the aircraft, but the most commonly refers to the firing chair using a jet engine (K-36DM), compressed air (Su-26) Powder charge (KM 1M). After the shot is offline discarded, and the pilot landed on the ground on a parachute. In some embodiments, used rescue cabin (B-1) or capsule (B-58), are lowered by parachute.
Background design ejection seat
Until the second half of World War II pilot left the cockpit as follows: you have to get up from the seat, cross over the side to get to the wing and jump into the gap between the tail and wings. In this way it was possible to use at speeds 400-500 km / h. But the aviation industry is not standing still, and the end of World War II aircraft speed limits have increased significantly. Using the same principle of ejection, many pilots died or could not even move, as they walked towards the strong airflow.
As the German statistics, for the period from the end of 30-and early 40-ies in 40% of cases leaving the aircraft above method ends in disaster for the pilot. The US Air Force also carried out a study which showed that 45,5% leaving the board in such a way to end with injuries pilots and 12,5% - death. The time has come to find an obvious need for a new method of ejection. A suitable option has been ejected from the pilot seat.
Experiments with a forced release of the pilot of the aircraft were carried out back in 20-30-ies, but their purpose is to address the fear of pilots before "jumping into the void." In 1928 in Cologne at the exhibition presented a system that performs ejection of pilots in a chair with a parachute. The release was carried out on 6-9 meters with compressed air.
In 1939 in Germany were first catapult. Experimental Aircraft Heinkel He-176 was equipped with a bow discharged part. A little later catapult began to produce commercially. They began to set on the turbojet Heinkel not-280 and piston not Heinkel-219. In January 1942 years Gelmunt Schenk (test pilot) made the first successful bailout. In addition, ejection seats was set at other German planes. Over the entire period of the Second World German pilots made about 60 bailout.
The first generation of ejection seats were developed with a single mission - to throw a man out of the cockpit. Distanced himself from the aircraft, the pilot had to unfasten the straps to disengage the seat and open the parachute.
Ejection seat of the second generation began to appear in 50-ies. During the evacuation of the airplane partially participated automatic. All you had to do - pull the lever. Shooting pyrotechnic mechanism threw a chair and injected parachuting stage: first stabilizing and then brake and then the main parachute. Easy Automation has been able to lock height and time delay.
The third generation appeared after 10 years. Chairs began to complement solid rocket motors that work after disconnecting from the seat of the cab. They supplied a new automation. The first chair of this generation were developed in the NPP "Star" and possessed a gun parachute CPA, which connects with the plane 2 pneumatic tubes and tuned to the altitude and speed.
Current models of catapult seats - British Martin Baker Mk 14, the American McDonnell Douglas ACES 2 and Russian K-36DM. December 10 1954, Colonel D. P. Stapp Air Force Base Holloman suffered record overload - 46,2 g. Test pilot D. Smith 1955 for the first time made a bailout at supersonic speed.
The sequence of operations for the bailout.
Click to view.
Almost all aircraft ejection seat drive is supervised by a pilot. But there are some types of aircraft, in which the function of thought forced ejection of the crew commander of the aircraft (Tu-22M). In Russia, there is only one aircraft (VTOL Yak deck-38), equipped with a fully autonomous system bailout. The system itself is watched dangerous regimes during the flight, and if necessary without the desire crewmen throws it.
To date, the production of ejection seats still involved US companies and McDonnell Douglas Stencil and British Martin Baker. In Russia, such chairs creates only NPP "Star". In practice, the Soviet Union will catapult chair designed by a certain type of aircraft.
Ejection seat airplanes in space
Quite often the question arises - why ejection seats are not installed in airliners. There are several reasons:
The majority of air accidents occur during take-off and landing, and it was then, when the bailout is not enough passengers or the flight altitude or time.
The military aircraft before the moment of ejection leans cabin windows. While in commercial aircraft would have to drop ceiling.
Ejection seat is ejected by means of a jet engine or a powder charge, whose work often led not only to the injury of neighboring passengers, but also to their murder.
When the body of the pilot bailout subjected to extreme forces that are safe only when the pilot receives the correct posture and the palm rest and head.
At the height of the air temperature and much lower pressure than the ground. Lightning depressurization of the aircraft in such circumstances is not only dangerous, but deadly. Therefore bailout pilots dressed in special costumes and tall hats and use oxygen masks.
Assume that all of the above points did not affect the health of passengers, but the process of descent with a parachute is quite complex and requires certain skills that are highly practiced in training and specialized training. Also, if the passenger will go down on the trees, the water or the mountains, not the fact that he could stay alive.
Strict requirements of aviation safety have led to the fact that the number of serious incidents and accidents in comparison with the successful hops negligible. Given the size of the aircraft with additional components, it has negated the installation catapult seats. If each passenger seats are mounted, weight and volume of the aircraft would be greatly increased. In turn, this would lead to higher amounts of fuel use, and accordingly, increase the cost of the trip.
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