The bailout of the plane. Rescue capsule aircraft.
The rescue capsule - a closed ejection device which is intended to save the pilot of the aircraft in complex emergencies. In practice, sealed capsules are used, allowing to fly without a spacesuit and parachute having status.
There are two schemes rescue capsule:
Detachable cabin crew.
Ejection individual sealed capsule for the pilot.
In 50-ies in combat aircraft began to appear entirely new ejection tools that increase operational efficiency of public ejection seats. In accidents ejection device triggered by a signal in the automatic mode. Flyer with armchair covered with special shields. The resulting booth equipment used more diverse. It increases safety after the moment of ejection.
Only sealed rescue capsule received practical application. They protect people from the impact of the dynamic pressure, aerodynamic heating overload during braking. In addition, this allows the capsule to fly without a suit, a parachute and allows normal splashdown.
The very first capsule is considered to be developed in the US Navy aircraft F4D «Skyray». But at the time the capsule has not been applied. After that, the development of rescue capsules for bombers and XB-58-70 company took Stanley Aviation. To Valkyrie speed range to release the capsule begins with 150 km / h and ranges of speeds up to M = 3.
Bailout to Hustler
The used capsule Automatic aircraft prepares to escape, ejection and landing. In preparation meant giving the body of the pilot of a fixed position, the closure and sealing of the capsule. Mechanism bailout triggered by means of levers, which are located on the armrests.
Test rescue capsules bomber Convair B-58 Hustler
First ignited the powder charge. Its gases enter the sealed closing mechanism - created pressure corresponding 5000-meter height. When the capsule is closed, the pilot has the ability to control the aircraft, as the steering wheel is in the normal position directly inside the capsule. She has a window, which allows you to monitor the devices.
TOP-5 bailout at the last moment.
This design allows you to fly further. The process works on the principle of ejection catapult seats, manned rocket engines. After pressing the lever ejection begins ignition of gunpowder charge. Dedicated emit gases canopy. Further there is a start of the engine. Drogue thrown initsiiruyuya disclosure on the surface of the flaps, stabilizers. Inner life support equipment is switched immediately. Aneroid machines on timers cause the opening of the main parachute and cushioning rubber filled cushions, which soften the impact when landing or splashdown.
Bailout to XB-70
The capsule is equipped with a fairing consisting of 2 halves seat can change its angle of inclination. Stabilization of the capsule is provided with two cylindrical three-meter telescopic arms. Drogue equipped end of the arm. Powerplant threw the capsule to an altitude of 85 meters. The decrease occurs by means of a rescue parachute. Its diameter - 11 m. The landing was carried out thanks to the shock absorber in the form of a rubber cushion that inflates. Such capsules allow the crew of 2 people in the cabin ventilation type. Inside the capsule was set necessaries: rod, radio, water, food, gun.
When creating a detachable cockpit crew it was considered the main task to develop a more friendly and easy-to-use type of salvation. The cabin was to increase stability in flight and reduce preparation time compared with the capsule and ejection seats.
In practice, operation of emergency evacuation of the aircraft is very difficult to do. Mechanical connection wires and on-board equipment normally shall conform to the requirements of full operation and reliability, with the separation should take place in a split second.
It is considered to be the most efficient separation of the cab with the nasal part of the fuselage or fuselage, which forms together with the cabin pressurized module easily disconnected. In a constructive manner both options may vary depending on the method of landing. Planting can be carried out on the water or on land. In some embodiments, the crew must leave the capsule at a certain height before the landing. Tests have shown that the most acceptable type of booths can be tselnoprizemlyaemy because it is more reliable.
The first cabins were used in experimental copies Bell X-2 and Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket. The X-2 used cabin that separates together with the bow. She dropped by parachute to a specific height, the pilot and left her familiar way with the help of a parachute.
Lever for bailout
In 1961 in France patented detachable cabin equipped with inflatable floats. It was assumed that during the accident electrical mechanism separate from the cabin of the aircraft, including rocket engines and open stabilizers. At the highest point of the flight at low speed to zero, provided for the opening of the parachute.
In the US, we developed two variants detachable cabins. Stanley Aviation designed booth F-102, Lockheed - F-104 Starfighter. Practical application and not implemented.
The modern cabins have found practical use only in the supersonic aircraft in 2-1 Lancer and F-111. With a cabin realized in the first bailout 1967 year, when the F-111 crashed. The crew made a bailout at the height of 9 450 km at a speed of km / h. Landing smoothly.
The company has developed a completely sealed McDonnell cockpit. Pilots could fly without special equipment. Exiting the plane was completely safe. Disconnecting the cabin occurred after pressing the lever, which was located between the seats of the crew. When a team has been filed, the whole system begins to operate in automatic mode. The cabin is separated, controls and wires are disconnected. A rocket engine is activated.
Depending on the speed and altitude engine discards cabin on 110-600 meters from the aircraft. At the highest point of the flight cabin throws stabilizing parachute and foil-strip that facilitate radar for rescue services. After 0,6 seconds ejection operation of the engine stops and the release of the main parachute.
In developing the program in design-1 involves the use of a detachable triple cabin as the aircraft F-111. But due to the impressive value of the cabin need for research, the complexity of the design and maintenance made the decision on the application of these cabins only in the first three copies of the aircraft. In all other instances exploited purely ejection seat.
The history of the rescue capsule. Video.
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