How to fly a helicopter?
First of all, interesting to know how to fly a helicopter? What makes his designs?
No less curious to find out which way in its development was the one of the first in theory, the aircraft heavier than air.
The next question:
Why it took a century to the helicopter idea was put into practice and there was a modern aircraft is fit for practical purposes?
Could be a helicopter jet?
And is not it interesting to get acquainted with the existing structures and helicopters schemes?
By helicopter, you can ask a thousand questions, one interesting another.
But the most interesting is the question of the possibilities of a helicopter flight, which determine its practical value for the creative activity of man.
When you want to use the aircraft landing in any place, first of all find out if there is an airfield, which would be able to land the plane and from which could then take off. If the vicinity of the intended item is no airport or even a flat area suitable for landing, then no matter how the need for the plane, the question of its use is not necessary.
The plane lands with a high forward speed and makes for a runway long run to a stop. Off the ground plane can
Only when, after a run on the runway, develop greater speed, and for that aircraft have to make quite a long run. High-speed aircraft to take-off speed of developing a 200 km / h, and to develop such a speed, the aircraft needed about one kilometer run.
The property of an airplane wing is that it creates sufficient lift force for takeoff only when the air flow are at a high velocity. If the rate is low, then the lift is small. If the speed is zero (ie. E. The aircraft is stationary), the lifting force is not. In both cases, the plane can not take off.
In aviation circles of many countries are already talking about the so-called problem of the airfield. In fact, there is something to ponder if the development of aviation is at a rapid pace, and every new airport - hundreds of acres of excellent earth's surface to take away from farming, on meadows and arable lands. This is particularly true of countries with mountainous terrain, the area of which is small.
However, if a prerequisite for creating a lifting force on the wing is wrap it with air at high speed, it could not make the plane was on the ground, and the wing moving through the air and created lift?
It is enough to formulate the problem as will appear, and the simplest solution: the wings to be rotated in a horizontal plane, while they describe a circle. Rotating wings cause the air to flow around them with sufficient speed even when the forward speed of the entire apparatus is not present, ie. E. When the unit is standing or hanging in place. Wings are like the blades of the propeller rotates in a vertical plane as the plane with a piston engine, and in the horizontal. This is a fundamental decision airfield problem.
In helicopter wings rotate like a propeller blade. Hence the name of this class of aircraft heavier than air - rotorcraft.
Thus, you can easily answer the following questions.
- What is the take-off speed of the helicopter? - Zero. The helicopter can take off from the scene.
- What is the length of the runway a helicopter? - Zero. Helicopters run 's needs.
- There is great landing speed and the path length of the helicopter? - The landing speed and the path length is also equal to zero, so the helicopter can drop steeply down.
Consequently, the need for extensive airfields eliminated.
The huge advantage of the helicopter lies in the fact that it can be used everywhere. He can "land" on the roof of a tall building, on the deck of a ship or river steamer, on a raft, on railway platforms, on a plateau, the clearing in the woods, on the car.
For helicopter landing pad surface can be uneven, slightly sloping, hilly or uneven, with stumps or habitat, mobile or stationary - nothing will prevent the helicopter to land and take off again.
So, the first decisive factor in ensuring helicopter widespread is the ability to vertically take off and without a run vertically, landing without run, that does not exclude the possibility of a helicopter taking off and landing like an airplane, t. E., "In the airplane."
Another crucial factor is the ability of the helicopter still hang in the air like above the ground or water, so at the height of several kilometers.
Each speed range for each aircraft altitude is limited, on the one hand, the maximum speed, and the other - the minimum allowable speed. Because the drag plane increases with increasing flight speed, and the engine can not develop power, most of its maximum capacity, there is a certain maximum speed steady horizontal flight. Further increase of the maximum flight speed in this case can only occur at the expense of the aircraft (loss of height). The maximum flight speed of modern aircraft reaches more 1000 km / h.
The minimum allowable speed jets, t. E. The lowest rate at which the aircraft is able to perform the horizontal and curved flight, 200-300 km per hour. If the rate will be even lower, the plane begins to lose stability and fall on the wing, followed by a transition into a tailspin.
Light connected planes can fly at a speed of not less than 50-70 km / h, At the minimum speed helicopter thick is equal to zero, and the maximum horizontal speed poleta- 150-200 km / h. Furthermore, the helicopter can stop in the air, turning on the spot of flying sideways or even backwards.
Naturally, such opportunities helicopter open wide prospects for its use in various fields of national economy, sometimes where, seemingly, the aircraft can not be used.
All these positive aspects of the helicopter shall not, however, overshadow his negative qualities.
The helicopter can not fly at high speeds, it has not yet sufficiently resistant, difficult to manage and is more vulnerable against small arms fire than the plane.
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