Ka-22. A photo. History. Characteristics
Rotorcraft Ka-22 was designed OKB. Kamov in the early 60-ies of XX century. NATO codenamed "hoop." The design of the helicopter uses two rotors and two turboprop engines, the outstanding total capacity of 5900 hp takeoff weight rotorcraft was 37 tons.
November 7 1961, on the rotorcraft Ka-22 set a world speed record flight. Parameter reached 356,3 km / h and not beaten up today. Supervised flight that day DK Yefremov.
History of the Ka-22
During the Cold War, the Soviet Armed Forces required to replenish its arsenal of aircraft that can move quickly tactical ballistic missiles and launchers in the area are not available for landing.
Leaders Union instructed to start design of these aircraft to two design bureaus: Bureau named. Mile and design them. Kamov. Milewski the Office develops Mi-6 on the basis of single-rotor design with one main central screw and one tail. KB named Nikolai Kamov decided to design a completely new type of aircraft fuselage devices with Li-2 and rotors, which were placed on the wings. The approval of this project by the Government of the Soviet Union was obtained in 1954 year. Clarification of performance took place in the year 1956. In particular, the new rotorcraft had to carry loads up to 5000 kg range about 700 km, 4000 kg - about 1500 km and still have a top speed within a 350-400 km / h.
Static tests of the Ka-22 TsAGI began in the beginning of the year 1957. The first copy of the flight test aircraft factory assembled № 938 and sent to flight test platform OKB. Kamov in 1958 year. Before lift rotorcraft in the air had significantly modifying it, so the first flight had to be postponed for a while. The first tests of free hovering began in the early summer of 1959 years.
Complete the first mission rotorcraft Ka-22, which was attended by pilots DK Yefremov and VM Evdokimov, mechanic EI Filatov, chief engineer VB Al'perovich experimenter YI Emelyanov, held 20.04.1961. This flight marked emergency: because flutter of rotors from the left propeller broke half meter piece of the blade. Thanks to the professional actions of the crew Ka-22 barely managed to land in the mode of an emergency landing.
During the tests we went out minor flaws: constantly had to do the replacement of engines and gearboxes, change the position of the rotor blades. The first flight with the speed 200 km / h at an altitude of 1000 m was made a test pilot Yu Garnaeva 23.09.1961.
24.10.1961 - to rotorcraft Ka-22 set a world record for carrying capacity. Load weight m 16,485 2557 raised to a height of m.
28.08.1962 - conducting a stopover at the airport Dzhusaly, surpassing rotorcraft from Tashkent, the capital of the USSR, the Ka-22 (number 01-01) crashed. The crew of seven people died on the spot. These were the same people that for the first time raised the rotorcraft in the air. As the Commission of Inquiry found, the disaster caused a break in a cable control system design.
After a year 2, 16.07.1964, during flight tests in a plane crash was another instance of Ka-22 (number 01-03). A turn to the right, the aircraft went into a steep dive. The crew all the forces trying to align the rotorcraft, but their efforts have not resulted in success. During the fall from 01-03 nacelle broke away right then rotorcraft in the air began to crumble apart. Killed 2 person: Technician AP Rogov and the pilot SG Brovtsev.
Instability during the flight, a high risk of accidents, sometimes the complexity and unpredictability of the management - in total, these factors were not allowed to commercially produce the Ka-22. As a result, the design won a duel for the state order Milevsky helicopter. Of the four machines produced at this time is not spared none: two burned in the crash, two sent for recycling. The last instance of rotorcraft Ka-22 cut at the Tashkent aircraft plant at the end of 90-x.
Design rotorcraft after such unsuccessful Ka-22 development in this area has been closed for a long time. Only in 1972, the Design Bureau. Mile submitted a draft rotorcraft Mi-30, which, unlike the Ka-22, had a pair of rotary screw design.
The composition of the carrier system comprises two wings rotors at their ends. Flying at slow speed and vertical landing helicopter rotors provided with work, which produced the required thrust. Flaps Ka-22 during slow flight and landing tilts 90 ° in order to minimize loss of traction as a result of blowing the wing screws. The higher the speed of the aircraft, the greater the load in the production of lift lies on the wings. So, at maximum speeds at the expense of the wings it produces about 90% lift rotorcraft.
It is due to such features Ka-22 and similar structures on aircraft, in comparison with the helicopters can reach speeds of more in absolute value. Ka-22 reached the speed limit on the tests in 370 km / h. At high speed operation is performed unloading rotors, which also displays vertibirds ahead of their rivals.
The control system can be defined as aircraft and helicopter elements. Cyclic change in the angle of the blades of aircraft propellers and rudder deflection characteristic longitudinal control. Lateral control is provided aileron, change the collective pitch rotors. Directional control - due to deflection of the control lever and changing the pitch of the differential right and left rotors.
Also present rotorcraft control system (CS) mode of the engine, SU collective pitch propellers, automatic hydraulic SU step traction screws, by which the transition of power from the rotor to the traction with increasing speed flight.
In the cockpit there are controls: steering wheel, pedals, throttle lever and the total gas. Levers hard wired system connected to the spool actuators, which act on the controls Ka-22. It's safe to say that the pilot rotorcraft heavier than an airplane or a helicopter. Create designers such severe control scheme required the development of a simulator for test pilots. Though a trainer in Kamov bureau was created by the project because of the many flaws and two wrecks Ka-22 had to close, series production of this model has not started.
Ka-22 became the basic model for the development of heavy commercial rotorcraft:
• Ka-34 - has a transverse circuit design and 4 gas turbine engine, working with co-axial rotors;
• Ka-35 - has lifting rotors and marching turbojet engines.
|Diameter of the main rotor, m||22.50|
|Wing area, m2||105.00|
|Weight, empty kg||25840|
|Weight, kg normal take-off||37500|
|Weight, kg maximum take-off||42500|
|Fuel Weight, kg||6000|
|engine's type||2 GTD D-25VK|
|power, kWt||X 2 4101|
|Maximum speed km / h||356|
|Cruising speed, km / h||270|
|Practical range, km||1100|
|Practical ceiling, m||4250|
|Static ceiling, m||3500|
|Payload:||Maximum transported cargo - 16500 kg|
|Normal landing cargo - 5000 kg|
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