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Ka-15
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Ka-15

Ka-15. A photo. History. Characteristics.

 

In 1950 year OKB Kamov engineers began working on a sketch of the project ship helicopter with a crew of two people - the Ka-15. The circuit layout was standard: the crew in front, behind the engine. But due to the fact that the ship's helicopter, it was necessary to make some corrections. It was originally planned to install AI-14V engine (power take-off 245 hp) and the top screws with trapezoidal blades of wooden material. They must have had a negative twist and a great restriction. Chord on the axis of rotation in theory equal to 300 mm, and in the end reached 100 mm. Filling ratio of a three-blade propeller was 3% and, of course, everyone on 1%. In world practice, it was the smallest duty cycle.

The development of a universal layout engineers engaged in VI Biryulin and BJ Kostin. Returning to the state tests, Nikolay Kamov chose one of the easiest options - conventional arrangement with wheel chassis. In the spring of the year 51 began designing this model, and on June 9 order came from the deputy PSM AN Bulganinova to start financing the Ka-15.

Ka-15

Project ship Ka-15 represented the compact size of the helicopter. The length has decreased in comparison with the Mi-1 twice, which in turn hampers the effective placement of all necessary in a helicopter to search for submarines. At first, about the buoyancy of the machine it was decided to forget. Installed four-wheel chassis.

Designed M. Kupfer wings had plywood paneling and foam-filled slots in the rear. This trick has been used to counter the blade flutter. If we take the example of the Mi-4, the vertical joints were installed friction dampers. Naturally, the column control system includes an intermediate polzushki. They solve the problem with common and differentiated steps.

Fuselage overall design formed from duralumin chassis, power farms and small tail boom. Washers are attached at the end of the stabilizer beam consisted of a rudder and keel areas. The engine placed inside the fuselage together with the fan. In the present planetary gearmotors and conical reducing transmission. Through his power passed to the two-stage satellite switchgear reducer. A good overview of the cabin crew was provided due to the form of the nose and glazing. Sliding door allowed, if necessary, leave them in the open position.

Ka-15

The first flight of the Ka-life tests performed in April 15 53 years. It raised to the sky Test Pilot DE Efremov. And in June the same year, the Minister of Aviation Industry Finance A. Khrunichev stopped shipments for this model. N. Kamov with great effort got a new, but smaller funding.

Certain structural parts have improved even during bench testing. For the first time the tension in the design particles tested in the factory tests. The overall results of voltage measurements give a chance to the high resources, but the overall refinement of the helicopter vibration issues lasted longer. This nuance in no way affected the successful completion of state tests (1995 year).

The problem remained constant shaking. Gradually, with the use of new materials and methods of their application developed ideas to remove unnecessary vibrations. The huge contribution belongs to D. Ephraim. In 56 it was decided to create a group to find out and solve the problem. It consisted of three personnel Engineer: A. Ilyichenko, S. Gorshteyn, F. Feldman. They studied the overall concept of the vibration and the way it appears. Basically we allocated three reasons: self-oscillations, forced oscillations and blade flutter. With the solution also helps employees TsAGI: I. Ananiev, AA Resnick, L. Popov, M. Galkin, and B. Stallions.

The most vexing problem for the OP-3 was the presence of the longitudinal oscillations. OP-2 they are not particularly worried, because at this Ka-15 present rigidity in the upper screw and increase the shaft section. Frequency OP3 tests have shown that, due to a manufacturing defect the top support of a third-order practically absent.

Ka-15

These studies were carried out for several years, which in turn has allowed a lot of other problems. Increased take-out joint vertical type. Bronze bearings replaced by a needle. Between the rotor blades have built in the spring rods and set the Three-traction compound for the lower and upper swash. To increase the rigidity index supports the upper and lower screws raised shaft section and have built on top of a third support higher than the second on 360 mm. With these procedures became possible after the factory to start public testing of the helicopter.

But even when customers started to operate production models Ka-15, still had to resolve problems relating to vibration. For example, the flutter problem solved by means of a counterweight. On blades installed protivoflatternye outrigger loads.

Ka-15

Later there was another problem - moving blade alignment ago (repair result). Repairing blades were sealed cracks in the ground trim, fold it back to adjust the screws. First, they decided to sew a thread "McKay," but the military did not agree and had to replace a string of wire. Repairers slightly overdone at the time of the operation, putting putty more than needed. Because of this, the center shifted back. And this in turn led to inexplicable incidents. The first suspicious of the flutter, but he immediately pulled back, as in the bureau after the repair procedures for all of the blades of the machine checked by a specialized technique.

After repairs N. Kamov sent staff involved in vibration problems to places of deployment of helicopters. Each of the members of this group emerged the problem corrected. A striking example of the situation in Sevastopol. A test pilot A. Voronin during the flight found a very strong vibration at high speed. But tape Vibrographs gave no results. Since 140 speed km / h, there is a flutter and violent shaking machine. The problem arose from the difference between the distance of the screws. New indicators have been introduced to the methodology of testing the possibility of flutter. Effective alignment should be one percentage point higher than the maximum speed in the absence of signal flutter. Adjustment as a result has become more simple.

Ka-15

The result of tests carried out repair and research procedures was an increase of performance in comparison with the expected. Ka-15 was able to carry a weight of 210 kg excluding own weight in 1410 kg. At the same time the engine power was 280 hp Same Mi Ka-1-15 conceded twice. Compact and aircraft handling machines allowed to land in confined areas.

After the start of serial Ka-15 in the bureau will continue to work to improve the characteristics, resources and opportunities for application of the helicopter. In 1957 year pilots Efremov D. and T. Rusia conducted a series of dangerous for health and life of a vortex ring research. Thanks to their courage were set the exact boundaries of the beginning of the regime and, most importantly, ways out of it.

In 57-m-15 helicopter UCA was created (instance of training) for training and training flights. It further flight instruments and curtains (for training flight blind) have been installed. There have also been set up different types of options for a helicopter to carry out agricultural activities (Ka-15M). This helicopter is equipped with various devices for the treatment of plants with chemical fertilizers. On the other helicopters were installed containers for postal delivery trucks and gondolas to transport sick or float landing gear.

Ka-15 characteristics:

Modification

Ka-15

Diameter of the main rotor, m

9.96

Length m

6.26

Height, m

3.35

Width, m

2.85

Weight, kg

 

null

968

normal takeoff

1360

maximum take-off

1460

engine's type

1 PD AI-14V

power, kWt

X 1 188

Maximum speed km / h

155

Cruising speed, km / h

120

Ferry range, km

520

Practical range, km

278

Practical ceiling, m

3500

Static ceiling, m

600

Crew

1

Payload:

1 364 kg passenger or cargo

 

 

Ka-15. Gallery.

Ka-15 schemeKa-15 block layoutKa-15 layout photo Side

Ka-15 with passengersKa-15 layoutKa-15 runway

Ka-15 before takeoffKa-15 in flightKa-15 photo Side

 

Helicopters

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