Fighters of the USSR
Surely all have seen a trace in the clouds left by modern aircraft flying at high altitudes. He called contrails and is formed only when the jet or rocket engines. Before 1943 years seen anything like this was impossible - neither military nor civilian aircraft with such engines did not exist. Ironically, in the history of mankind is war often serve as the impetus for the development of scientific and technical progress.
It happened with the aircraft. It was during the Second World War in the struggle for supremacy in the sky created the first truly reliable jet and turbojet engines, as well as war machines capable of flying at unusually high altitudes with great speed. Jet engines provide the necessary thrust for flight by burning fuel in a special chamber. A stream of hot gases at enormous speed flows out of the combustion chamber, thereby forming a reactive force, pushing the engine, and together with it and the plane in the opposite direction.
Turbofan jet engine differ from those that air is injected into the combustion chamber under pressure by a compressor and a turbine, which rotates a stream of hot gases from the combustion chamber. As a result, the engine power is increased and fuel consumption declines. The first jet aircraft in the history was the German "Heinkel-176», the design of which was launched designer Hans Regner 1937 the end of the firm "Heinkel". It was established liquid propellant engines. Twentieth June 1939, the aircraft made its first flight, piloted by his famous test pilot Erich Varzittsem. However, the "first attempt", as they say, came out lumpy - imperfections of construction are not allowed to reach very high speeds. The value of this project is that it has allowed to lay the basic principles of construction of jets.
But in 1943 year it rose in the sky the new brainchild of German designers - jet interceptor "Messerschmitt-262». This war machine has caused a lot of trouble Luftwaffe anti-Hitler coalition. Reactive "Messerschmitts" appeared on all fronts in 1944 year, their altitude and speed characteristics made them practically invulnerable.
The aircraft was armed with four powerful guns. After the war, the work continued to improve it, and soon the Me-262 managed to break the sound barrier, that is, they began to fly at a speed exceeding the speed of sound in air - 331 m / s. The new aircraft had an unusual appearance - in fact at supersonic speeds laws of aerodynamics are changing, and the usual form of the wings had to be replaced on the arrow-or triangular.
At the end of World War II and the Soviet Union turned the work on the creation of reactive military equipment. To do it right the four famous design offices - Mikoyan, Yakovlev, Lavochkin and Sukhoi. The race was won designers Mikoyan and Gurevich - their fighter jet made its first flight in April 24 1946 year, just a couple of hours ahead of the machine created in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Interestingly, the domestic production of jet engines in the Soviet Union did not exist, so the MiG-9 initially equipped with engines "Junkers" and "BMW". Thus the results shown were impressive new aircraft - MiG developed a speed of about one thousand kilometers per hour and up to a height of more than 13 kilometers. The armament of the first Soviet jet fighter were two rapid-gun.
Still, the first jet fighter aircraft, taken into service in the Air Forces of the USSR, became a Yak-15, created in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. He had a somewhat lower speed, but have high reliability and security, for which it appreciated the pilots. In addition, developers have installed on it the engine of his own design, so the plane could immediately go to the series. Armed Yak-15 was two aircraft guns. Later, this aircraft is the most reliable and "obedient", used for pilot training management jet engines.
Jet fighters - the most high-speed combat vehicles. By the beginning of 50-ies they "learned" to accelerate to 1200 km / h, and it later turned out that this is not the limit. Modern aircraft capable of speeds that exceed the speed of sound for more than four times!
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