Cuhoy fighter Su-15
Su-15 was the most popular and effective fighter-interceptor of the Soviet Union. He served in the parts of the air defense over 30 years.
The history of the Su-15
In the early 60-ies Western countries have got new shock aviation systems. This forced the Soviet leadership to make a reciprocal step. Anti-aircraft missile systems were still in their infancy and can not provide a guarantee of protection against the breakthrough of enemy bombers. Required air defense fighter aircraft capable of attacking targets not only on the Dogon, but also on a collision course or, as the pilots in the forward hemisphere. At that time, the Soviet Air Force were armed with several types of interceptors. The most high-speed and high-rise among them were older airplanes started in KB named P. Sukhoi Su and Su-9-11. However, their capacity was limited. Installed on the Su-11 radar "Eagle" provides a takeover target at a distance of only 25 km.
The interceptor was fitted with the first Soviet missiles homing P-8N. They had a small effective range 10-12 km and can hit a target only catching up with the course.
To increase the combat capabilities of the Sukhoi interceptors need new missiles and radar, but more powerful radars were larger in size and design are available fighters did not fit. Pavel Sukhoi the idea Electronics is fully placed in the nose of the aircraft and the air intake positioned on the sides of the fuselage; next to the radar and could accommodate a battery of missiles. Thus, it started designing the first Soviet aircraft with the side air intakes. Directly supervised labor aircraft Nikolai Zyrin.
For a fighter with a sharp increase in weight does not have enough thrust of the engine. I had to put two power plants and two flat air inlets in the wing roots. Radar took the entire nose section of the fuselage, so the idea of deployment of missiles had to be abandoned.
Delta wing thin profile, empennage and landing gear were taken without change from previous designs. As a result, the aircraft has acquired the classic look of the second generation supersonic fighter.
30.05.1962 Test Pilot Design Bureau. Dry Ilyushin flew the prototype of the Su-15. The structure of its equipment included radar sight, which had a longer range detection and capture targets in the air.
The strength of the design allows us to develop a supersonic speed, even in the land. World Aviation did not know analogues to the airplane at the time. State tests of the new interceptor passed quickly and without any comments. The plane was flying at supersonic speeds, easily reached static ceiling. The only downside was a small range, so the designers have increased the volume of fuel tanks.
30.04.1965 - aircraft joined the interception Su-15-98 and adopted by the Soviet air defense. The complex included the Su-15, airborne weapon system radar "Eagle-B" missiles and F-98, as well as the ground segment - for automated guidance.
The missiles could hit aerial targets flying at speeds up to 3000 km / h at altitudes up to 23 000 m.
9.07.1967 machine shown on the air parade in Domodedovo.
The history of the Su-15
Serial production of the Su-15 1966 started with, at the Novosibirsk aircraft plant them. Chkalov. The following year, cars began to arrive in the combat units of air defense. Su-15 immediately earned the trust of drivers for their high flight data. The avionics and armament of the aircraft allows you to effectively perform the tasks of air defense.
In the first series aircraft appeared and some design flaws related to the application of the delta wing: landing speed was too high, and therefore dangerous. The car could go beyond the band, sometimes not even helped drag chute.
Get rid of these problems failed on the following versions of the Su-15, which had a variable sweep wing. Su-15 could intercept targets in a broad range of speeds and heights. Usually he worked with ground complex guidance "Air-1M." Pinpointing the offender at a large distance from a fixed radar, then climbed to intercept the fighters, they made one goal of the teams on the ground.
At a certain distance in the works include on-board radar interceptor. The pilot conducted the search target, finding that, sent a request for recognition system "friend or foe". This system was equipped with all the planes of the USSR: military and civilian. When the radar fighter fixed the goal of it was the answer: "His! Attack can not be! "If there was no response, the pilot made the decision to missile attack.
Initially, the Su-15 was conceived and built as a fighter for solving large problems. Potential targets of interception, except for high-altitude reconnaissance could be cruise missiles 1-generation aircraft and strategic bombers. In the context of the Cold War we had to take off to intercept a variety of purposes. Often the perpetrators were private planes that went into Soviet airspace due to navigational errors.
Su-15 was the most effective fighter-interceptor aircraft defenses. On account of his part in the battle of two well-known incidents. In both cases, these were passenger planes.
20.04.1978 in Karelia was intercepted and forced to land the South Korean "Boeing-707».
Su 1.09.1983-015 shot down over Sakhalin another South Korean "Boeing-747».
Su-15 served as the base model for the production of some test aircraft. One of them was a fighter with short takeoff and landing. It was equipped with three additional lift engines.
The first flight of this machine Ilyushin performed in 1966 year. Later it was demonstrated during the air show in Domodedovo summer 1967 years. Su-15 became the most massive Soviet fighter-interceptor. He was armed with 29 aviation regiments that were stationed in all regions of the USSR. 1400 were built these aircraft in several versions. Su-15 served parts of the defense of the country more than 30 years. Recent instances have been removed from combat duty in 1996 year.
Fighter CB OP Sukhoi Su-15 was the Soviet Air Force for a long time: 1970-1980-ies. It is produced commercially in several modifications since 1971 city
Powerplant: two engines P-13F-2-300 design SK Tu Mana, craving for 74 kN. The main type of weapons - missiles "air-to-air."
The performance characteristics of the Su-15
Wingspan, m 10,5
Length m 21,5
Height, m 5
Wing area, m2 35,7
Empty weight, kg 12 500
Launch weight, kg 18 000
Flight speed at an altitude of 2M
Flight speed at ground level M = 0,9
Ceiling, m 18 000
In 1983 G. Osipovich, the pilot shot down a Korean airplane "Boeing-747"Su-15.
Fighter-interceptor Su-15 model has been designed by experienced designers Sukhoi. This machine was equipped with two jet engines, which have been arranged in a tandem scheme. There were only two cars manufactured Su-15, and one of them crashed during testing.
The history of the Su-15
During the construction of the previous machines of this type designers took into account a number of inaccuracies that were eliminated in the car even during development. The main objective was to obtain high speeds of flight. To do this, designers was revised aerodynamic configuration system, and it was decided to create a machine that would have swept wing. In addition, provision is rather thin wing profile that will reduce the resistance during the flight. Studies of the new wing began in 46 year of the last century, with the support of many TsAGI EDO.
The Sukhoi Design Bureau in March 1947 years came the decision on the design of aircraft with Thin wing. The new car had to be equipped with two engines of the "Derwent V», other than that, the aircraft must be completely sealed cabin. By order of the USSR Ministry of the aircraft such as Su-15 should meet the following requirements:
The machine speed must be above 1000 km / h.
At the height of 5 kilometers apparatus must climb over 2,5 minutes.
Takeoff run the machine must be 700 meters and run - 400 meters.
Distance flight without refueling - 1600 kilometers, and with the optional tank and did more than 2 thousand kilometers.
Maximum height - 15 kilometers.
As for weapons, the Su-15 needed to equip three cannons 37-caliber.
Upon completion of design works were produced two cars, which were to be held factory and state tests.
The test apparatus Su-15
The first working car was ready in January 1949 years. At the first flight this month, designers were able to see a number of problems with the management of the machine. They concerned hydraulics, poor efficiency of the ailerons at low speeds, as well as the dive was a great time with the release of the brake parachute. But at high speeds, which almost reached the speed of sound, shaking the car, and also a big vibration. Designers long to figure out the causes of shaking. To identify the problems on the plane was equipped with a special writing instrument, which conducted the recording and analysis of the flight. It was found that the car was shaking only at certain speeds - of 570 km / h to 825 km / h, and at low or high speeds, big shaking has not been revealed.
In late spring 49, identified all the characteristics of the Su-15. But the tests are sufficiently tightened, and to accelerate the process involved was another pilot. Factory tests Su-15 have not been completed, since this machine was lost 3 49 June as a result of the disaster, the causes of which are uncertain and today. At the time of the crash has already performed 38 42 scheduled to fly to the test.
Design features interceptor Su-15
This machine has been manufactured as an all-metal hull steps midwing a circuit design. The cabinet had a semi-monocoque design and was divided into two parts: the front and tail. They are connected by bolting.
In front of the aircraft were placed virtually all systems, namely radar, cockpit, air intake, support the nose landing gear, fuel tanks, engine and front arms. Front air intake design provides air flow to the front and rear engine. Top air intake was placed radar antenna called "Thorium". Due to the location of the air intake designers had to shift the location of the cockpit to the left of the central axis of the aircraft. At the rear of the body was located just one engine and brake pads.
Power plant Su-15 was represented by two turbine engines RD-45F. Air is supplied to the engine through the air passage, which are aligned with the housing unit. In service they were quite comfortable, because they were equipped with a variety of covers and removable shields.
The wing had a sweep angle in degrees 35. It was constructed from two consoles, and she wing skin is attached directly to the body of the aircraft. The wing panel included a set of component parts: spar, stingers, ribs, additional walls, cast socks and, of course, a covering. Mechanics wing consisted of the ailerons and flaps.
With regard to the chassis of the machine, it was represented by three struts that were removed during the flight of the aircraft into the body. When folding landing gear niche closed doors, and support themselves have been fixed locks. Front desk had one steered wheel and two rear wheels had two. All-wheel drive system chassis were fitted with brakes. In addition, the aircraft had a parachute braking. All this has led to a reduction in stopping distance during landing apparatus.
The first option was the "doubler" crashed the car Su-15, which is produced as an interceptor with a long range. It was reduced cross section channel inlet, resulting in significant fuel savings. Its equipped with additional drop tanks, which had a volume of almost 2 thousand liters. Installed armament was represented by three large-caliber guns. It has also been changed planting plate. This design of the aircraft has not been completed, he was ready to 42%.
The second option was the project under the name Su-15UT, which was carried out only in the drawings of designers. It was intended for the education and training of pilots. The difference from the basic unit has been lengthening the cockpit, this could be achieved by installing a smaller fuel tank. By lengthening the cockpit designers managed to place another seat for the instructor. As for weapons, the aircraft had to have a gun and a machine gun.
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