IL-86. Photo. Video. Driving salon. Characteristics. Reviews
In September 1969 years OKB Ilyushin It was instructed to begin work on the development of medium-haul passenger airliner big passengers.
IL-86 became the first Soviet passenger liner having a fuselage and allowing to hold up to three hundred and fifty passengers. The main reason for the initial design widebody aircraft was to increase the number of air passenger and a heavy load on the airport.
In IL-86 we had four modified engines NK-8, which received labeled NC-86. Also on the plane it was applied at the time the new navigation system allowing you to perform flights in all weather conditions и any time of the day. The aircraft uses multiple backup system the basic functions that can improve flight safety.
With the power of the aviation industry in the USSR, scientific and economic potential in 70-20-ies century were created wide-body airliners IL-86. Truly the airline "Aeroflot" can be proud of the airplane, because it is not only reliable, but also helped to solve giperperevozok conditions at the time of the x and 80-90-ies. This four-passenger aircraft for medium-haul flight, was designed in Ilyushin Design Bureau.
This is the first (mass) passenger wide-body aircraft. Mass production was carried out by a 1980 1993 year (VASO) Voronezh aircraft factory. In the entire history it was released 106 copies. Currently not used in aviation operations spends much as much fuel. For this fighter plane called kerosene.
The need for such an air car appeared when "Aeroflot" has presented demands to the salon on 250-350 places. This happened in October 13 1967 years. Initially, engineers and technologists from the Ilyushin Design Bureau considered a variant of airplane on 250 seats (draft Il-62-250 with extra long fuselage 6,8). However, he was not accepted. There were projects 350 places with the terms of the comfort of a first embodiment. We tried to design the fuselage divided into two decks, and single-deck with an oval cross-section. These options also failed.
February 22 70, the OKB Ilyushin received a specific task on the construction of wide-body airliner on 350 places. Two years later the USSR Council of Ministers adopted a decree № 168-68, which spoke of the beginning of the project IL-86. In addition to the requirements of the specifications, it was an additional task - to create conditions for the carriage of baggage (the principle of "baggage with him"). This problem has put a number of questions about the choice of the diameter of the fuselage.
Thanks to the cooperation with the experts of choice was the result of TsAGI fuselage, whose parameters are allowed to put on a par with nine seats two looping paths, and their width was greater than in prior art from abroad. Operation with relatively short runways provide a choice of high-lift devices, which consisted of trehschelevyh flaps and slats.
The aircraft was a turbojet nizkoplan with four engines, for him even upgraded the engine NK-8 in NC-86. Eventually, because of his premature engine was removed from service. Loud noises, uneconomical fuel absorption, low traction and listless run led to a write-off. Also, the size of NK-86, which is designed for chassis and glider, made it impossible to re-engine IL-86 in the future. It was necessary to develop a new IL-96. Another disadvantage of the engine was decreased performance at high ambient temperatures. The intense heat began to operate temperature controllers, they cut off the fuel to lower the temperature of the gas turbine or even turned off the engine.
Since four of the aircraft engine, the hydraulic and the same. Their pressure is regulated by special individual pumps mounted to the engine. They feed boosters ailerons and rudder, stabilizer and drive mechanization wings, exhaust system and the landing gear, brakes, the system turning the front legs, and more. The left side boosters are fed through both systems, and the left side №1 №2 and right №3, mechanism boosters starboard side, respectively, of the system №2, third and fourth-board systems right side.
Near the boosters themselves (control wiring) mounted central spring cylinders, which displays the stock to neutral. This is necessary in order to avoid uncontrolled shutdown rudders with a possible broken wire. RP-69 (auxiliary steering gear) helps to overcome the tightening of the central cylinder and the friction between the wires.
RP-69 is a low-power steering, powered by all systems. It is included in the wiring to the other nodes. For better functionality of the flap system is installed in the hydraulic twin-RP-70, stabilizer and slats - RP-71 (twin-engine hydraulic drives). On the slats, there is one RP-71, and on the stabilizer - two.
The spindle is the main piece of mechanization permutation stabilizer. He secured loosely to avoid friction, while at the same time, thanks to steady your guide turns vertical displacement screw. The first RP-71 operated by hydraulic №2 №3 and, second, respectively, and is powered by №1 №4. Drives through the rotation of the screw nuts are moved downwards.
Top RP-71, spinning, transposes the stabilizer, while it is pivotally mounted and is at the front spar of the stabilizer. Lower RP-71 fixed as well but it moves downward screw itself. Because of this, even in the event of failure of one drive, supply chain management or its hydraulic control of the entire hydraulic system is stored anyway.
December 22 76 year was made the first flight of the test sample of the IL-86. His crew made EI Kuznetsova. In June next year the aerial machine was demonstrated at the Paris Air Show of international class. After the end of production tests in 1978, it was decided to begin certification. After their graduation year 1980, 26 namely December was made the first regular flight plan (route Moscow - Tashkent). A year later, the plane 18 set world records in flight.
In 80-ies considered options such aircraft as the Il-86D and IL-86V with British motors "Rolls-Royce» RB211-22V. Turbofan offered to use them to pull 19 000 kgs. Mid-range Il-86V formed of an elongated fuselage and could carry 450 passengers with a range of up to 3600 4000 km. IL-86D 330 was designed for passengers at a distance of nine thousand kilometers. It was this plane and became the basis for the IL-96-300.
IL-86 is considered one of the best aircraft in Russia. In the period of 1980 1993 years at VASO in Voronezh was released 103 aircraft for flights. Three of them were sent to China. In the same period, the reconstruction of the runway most of the USSR, because the previous could not take the plane Ilyushin. With 2001 year began a massive write-off this type of aircraft. The last flight of the IL-86 was the route Moscow - Sochi and Moscow - Simferopol until October 2010 years.
A total of one hundred and six aircraft in the middle of the year 2008 was lost four. In 1994 year in Delhi to fall in-737 indirectly caught standing on the runway IL-86. As a result, he caught fire. Killed airport staff that served planes. In 98-m Il-86 tail number 86 080 was forced to make a rough landing. As a result, because of the serious damage to the second of July of this year, the aircraft had to be written off for airworthy and recovery.
21.09.2001 because of the blunders of the crew the plane caught fire while landing. It happened in Dubai. The chief pilot is not just the landing gear and landing on the runway due to the friction of IL-86 kindled. Less than a year later in a tragic plane crash occurred Sheremetyevo. At take-off was chosen supercritical angle of elevation, and as a result broke contact at the control switch stabilizer.
Existing versions of the aircraft
IL-86 - standard basic version. The only copy of this aircraft was created for President RossiyskoyFederatsii.
IL-80 / 87 - Air Command item. It was built four such modification. Unlike the base model is the lack of windows, the presence of air refueling and additional hardware compartment "hump".
IL-86D - modification of IL-86, became the basis for the IL-96.
December 22 1976, the experimental and-86 made its first flight. IL-86 Tests have shown that the aircraft is low, compared with other medium-haul, low operating costs. In June 1977 the aircraft was demonstrated at the international air show in Le Bourget. A 25 1977 October, the air has risen aircraft intended for mass production. Since December 1980, the IL-86 become operated on domestic and international routes with the highest passenger traffic. The first flight with passengers on board the plane made along the route "Moscow-Tashkent» 26 1980 year in December. In IL-86 it was delivered eighteen world records. On the basis of the Il-86 it was designed for military use IL-86VKP (air command post).
IL-86 Photo salon
Also, the aircraft has marked IL or IL-80-87. There were four such aircraft produced. Also conducted research on the use of the company RollsRoyce engines on the aircraft IL-86. However, a series of these modifications have not arrived.
IL-86 interior scheme
Before the end of its production in 1993 year was released a little more than a hundred cars. Today IL-86 decommissioning passenger carriers and is not used for commercial flights. The main reason for removal of the aircraft to commercial flights is not matching its modern international aviation standards on noise and fuel consumption. His successor was the Il-96, which did not become popular aircraft.
ИL-86 a 4-engine wide-body passenger aircraft, designed in Ilyushin Design Bureau. This is the most massive Soviet passenger wide-body aircraft. In 1980-1997 years. It is manufactured in Voronezh aircraft factory VASO on. It was created just 106 aircraft.
Construction of IL-86
IL-86 - 4-motor with a turbojet nizkoplan odnokilevym plumage, swept wings. For IL-86 was created by the engine NK-86 - modernization of motor NK-8 Tu-154B and IL-62 with traction 13 ton. Subsequently, the engine has become the leading cause of premature withdrawal of aircraft from service, having too much fuel, providing insufficient thrust-and do not meet the standards for noise due to poor run and tear. There is even a joke, that the plane takes off only because of the curvature of the planet.
Dimensions NC-86, which is calculated under the chassis and the airframe made it impossible in the future re-engine IL-86, which led to the development of a new model of aircraft - IL-96. Moreover, outdated materials and construction NC-86 at high temperature reduces its performance compared to more modern versions of the engine. The intense heat during takeoff temperature controls worked well. To reduce the temperature of the gas turbine began Cut fuel or even turned off the engine, whereby you had to stop off.
In IL-86 are four hydraulic system - the number of engines. During operation, all motors in the hydraulic pressure is generated by a separate pump, which is mounted on the engine. Hydraulic feed drives mechanization stabilizer and wing irreversible beads ailerons and rudders, exhaust system and the landing gear mechanism turn feet, brakes and other consumers.
History of the IL-86
IL-86 - the first serial Soviet wide-body airliner. In 1967 year it emerged the need that "Aeroflot" to present claims on 250-350 places. The Council of Ministers on October 13 1967 city it was decided to develop such an aircraft. Initially, the Ilyushin Design Bureau examined a draft Il-62-250, 250 designed for places with a longer fuselage to 6,8 meters. But this project has not received development. To place 350 passengers needed to increase the number of seats in a row. But, trying to preserve the achieved level of comfort in the IL-62, the Design Bureau worked 2-deck version, as well as single-deck fuselage, which had oval cross-section with two separate cabins. However, these proposals were rejected.
OKB Ilyushin given the task to create a wide-body aircraft on February 350 22 1970 places of USSR Council of Ministers in March 9 1972 city I took supplied to start work on the aircraft IL-86. Among the claims submitted to the plane, it was a condition of carriage of baggage on this principle, as "luggage with them." This condition is required to carry out a series of studies, which resulted in the need to determine the diameter of the fuselage. TsAGI specialists have chosen the fuselage, which could allow the set of ten chairs with two aisles in a row. Moreover, the width of passages performed more than similar wide-bodied aircraft. To ensure the operation with short runways chosen mechanization of the wing, which consisted of trehschelevyh flaps and slats (later stopped at double-slotted), who were given a high lift.
The first flight of the IL-86 was made in December 22 1976, the crew EI Kuznetsova. At the end of 1978 completed factory testing, and they were replaced by certified tests. They ended in 1980, the IL-86 26 1980 December r performed his first flight Moscow - Tashkent. A year later, the plane managed to establish eighteen world speed records with a load of up to 35 80 tonnes on the closed route.
Four models have been built in the version of the air command post IL-80 (IL-87) for control of the armed forces in the event of a nuclear conflict.
Projects IL-86D and IL-86V studied in 1980-x. They are supposed to apply the thrust of the engines English 19 000 kgs. IL-86V - medium-range aircraft, the fuselage was lengthened and was intended to transport people to a range of 450 3,6-4 thousand. Km. IL-86D 330 used to transport a person to a distance of more than 9 thousand. Km. This aircraft was the basis for the IL-96-300.
In 1990-x analyze the possibility of installation on aircraft of highly efficient engines, which could increase the flight range by thousands 6,4. 350 km with passengers. However, the Ilyushin Design Bureau did not continue to re-engine, with this practical considerations. As a result, neither IL-96, or IL-86 (remotorizovanny) did not come into popular series, and this niche occupied "Airbus" A-310, «Boeing-767», «Boeing -747», age was nine-twenty years when buying Russian airlines in 2000-ies.
Operation of IL-86
In the period of 1979 1997, the IL-86 produced serially at the aircraft plant in Voronezh. Total was created one hundred and six airplanes of all modifications (4 IL-80 and 102-86 for Il USSR Ministry of Defense). Exports to China were built three aircraft. In 1980-ies. in many major airports have been reconstructed runway as a result they were able to take IL-86.
Flight age of the aircraft was relatively short-lived. As a result, noise and extreme inefficiency engines it became unusable in the new conditions. With 2001 year began a massive write-down and decommissioning of the aircraft.
In November 2010, the aircraft were removed from the flight and, in all likelihood, forever.
Features Ilyushin Il-86:
Length: 59,40 m.
Height: 15,8 m.
Wingspan: 48 m.
Maximum speed: 950 km / h.
Cruising speed: 900 km / h.
Range: 5250 km.
The practical range with maximum load: 3810 km.
Wing area: 320 sq.m.
Ceiling: 12000 m.
Number of seats: 240-350 Places
Crew: 3-5 person
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