IL-78 - tanker aircraft developed on the basis of IL-76MD, Used to refuel warplanes in the air. It is the only type of aircraft, tankers, standing in the Air Force. Often it is used as a military transport aircraft (in the modification of IL-78 lost that opportunity).
History of the IL-78
In the early 70-x, due to the need to replace air tankers M-4-2, Tu-16N and 3M-3 work began on the development of new specialized aircraft, being built on the basis of IL-76. But really suitable for this role, the car was only with the advent of modified IL-76MD (in 1981 year) with a take-off weight of up to 190 tons. On the plane were established 2 cylindrical vessels designed for 23 460 l, which were part of the overall fuel system.
June 26 1983 78, the IL-made its first flight. They ran the VS Belousov, an experienced test pilot. At the Tashkent aviation production association in 1984 year launched its mass production, which took place simultaneously with the IL-76.
The main difference between the new development from the previous refueling aircraft, which have been oriented to service long-range aircraft (mostly), was the opportunity to interact with the air defense and tactical aircraft. On the plane established 3 device (1 in the aft part of the fuselage and two wings) UPAZ1 started under the leadership of VI Kharchenko and GI Severin in the NPP "Zvezda".
IL-78, in addition to refuel in the air, and can act tanker to transport fuel. When impact of fuel on land not used ORM, instead vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh tanks to go to four fuel wires that are output from the loading tank. More Il-78 envisaged the possibility of conversion to a transport plane, for which two fuselage tank and ORM were made removable, and there were two trucks with winches pulling gain 3 thousand. Kg, rolgantovoe, telpher and mooring-harness equipment on board.
VS Belousov March 7 1988 year made its first flight on the modification of the tanker IL-78M, which had increased takeoff weight of up to 210 tons. The new aircraft was not able to quickly converted into a transport, as developers to increase the transported fuel made changes to the design. For example, in the cargo hold 3 of fixed cylindrical tank, designed to 36 tons of fuel, there is no rear loading hatch and troop-transport equipment, that can significantly reduce the weight of its own construction on 5 tons. However, it was not reinforced wing changes were fixing fuselage refueling unit (installed modification PAZ 1M, which proved to be more productive).
In IL-78 refueling in the air management comes from separately equipped operator's seat, which is instead feed Infantry unit. The air can simultaneously refuel two "light" and one "heavy" aircraft on underwing ORM.
IL-78 has a takeoff weight in tonnes 190, 100 km - distance from the aerodrome of departure, the ability to transfer tons of fuel and 65 32-36 tons at a distance of 2,5 thousand. Km.
IL-78M: 210 tonnes - off mass, 1800 km - distance from the airport, the transfer of fuel - 60-65 and 32 t-35 tons at a distance of 4 thousand. Km.
These numbers are reduced approximately by half while working with unpaved runways.
At the end of the year it was made 1991 45 modifications of aircraft IL-78M or IL-78. Later, in 2003-2006 years., Was created six more aircraft (IL-78MKI) directed to India.
Operation of IL-78
The first mass-produced cars in the 5 1985, he entered the BTA Training Center, located in Ivanovo, where 4 are transferred to the Uzin (1986) and were part of the long-range aviation.
IL-78 1987 in June, adopted officially by the Air Force.
In the Soviet Union, in addition to working with front and bombers, including the tasks of the aircraft was to provide alert and patrolling strategic bombers over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the Arctic. For this part of the machines flew to the Far East and Arctic airports.
Regiments were armed with IL-78:
409 Wing refueling aircraft;
106-I Heavy Bomber Air Division;
Ukrainian SSR, Uzin. The regiment at 1992 year was twenty-four Il-78. When it formed the technical basis for the training of personnel and maintenance of aircraft;
201-I Heavy Bomber Air Division;
Engels, of the RSFSR;
12030-th Regiment refueling aircraft. The private aviation group 6950 Guards air base in Ryazan was listed as twenty-one aircraft (as of 2013).
Modifications of IL-78
Quite often, the IL-78 confused with flying laboratory IL-76, which specialized in ORM test. Today, this machine is in the Kirovograd Flight Academy.
|Aircraft Length m||46.59|
|Wing area, m2||300.0|
|Internally fuel l||82000|
|engine's type||4 turbofan aircraft engines D-30KP|
|Thrust, kgf||X 4 117.68|
|Maximum speed km / h||850|
|Cruising speed, km / h||800|
|Speed when refueling, km / h||400-600|
|Practical range, km||7300|
|Practical ceiling, m||12000|
|Payload:||Maximum load - 65000 kg of fuel|
|Typical load: The wing tanks - 14800 kg of fuel|
|Fuselage tanks - 28000 kg of fuel|
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