IL-62. A photo. Video. Driving compartment. Characteristics. Reviews.
Chetyrehdvigatelny IL-62 designed in OKB Ilyushin in 1960 year, he became the first Soviet passenger jet long-range. It was created as a replacement for turboprop passenger aircraft Tu-104, for intercontinental flights. At first glance it looks like a British Vickers VC-10. But it was a very successful aircraft that surpassed VC-10. A labeling NATO the aircraft received the designation «Classic».
The "Aeroflot"In 60-ies there was an urgent need for long-haul passenger jets class. The characteristics of speed, comfort, reliability, economy and range, he was not to give his contemporaries ( "Boeing-707», DC-8). And beyond that, on the plane was supposed to be a special technique, which would provide a secure solution for engine failure, as well as in areas of high turbulence.
Aircraft that meet these rules become IL-62. This is the first jet plane for passenger transport, designed in Ilyushin Design Bureau. He was the last aircraft built by Sergei Vladimirovich Ilyushin (1963 year). As health SV Ilyushin handed operation and left the project of OKB. After he was appointed General Designer GV Novozhilov.
Due to the calculations and aerodynamic research has been made possible to optimize the shape of the wing. It was possible in the wing and around the aircraft to a combination of high performance characteristics that affect the level of safety. This happened thanks to the arrangement of the wing and wastewater system of interaction with the pods. An important factor was the transition to manual (direct) control.
ACS system is the first redundant system installed on IL-62. She had povyshennoybezopasnostyu and reliability, which, in turn, was necessary for use in aircraft landing minima of the second and third categories. It enhances the specially designed equipment for the automatic landing of heavy aircraft.
When you create the IL-62 OKB Ilyushin and TsAGI performed a number of different laboratory tests of endurance and strength. They are allowed to open a lot of potential problems, which in turn were solved immediately. This results in a plane, a smaller weight than its opponents abroad, and the size of the wings and the weight returns have become significantly more.
Wing sweep, in addition to the positive qualities is undesirable property - deterioration of the transverse handling, especially at high angles. Therefore, designers have devised to establish the leading edge of the wing in a special form of a beak influx. In addition to solving the basic problem, the "beak" allow to achieve excellent performance roll moment for the entire region of corner radii and, accordingly, beak began to play the role of a wind baffle.
When you create a design project Il-62 engineers were looking for all possible options to reduce the weight of the aircraft. Elementary solution was the transition from the electrical DC (voltage 27 B) on the AC system (voltage 220 B). As a result, engineers and technicians have received a more reliable electrical system and reducing the weight on 600 kilos.
Through rear engine in all cabins was less noise. It also affected the increase in the level of security, since the engines were at a great distance from the fuel tank (reduced affordability of fire). And during a rough landing engines not to damage the pavement or ground. But there is a negative of the layout - it is the center of mass displacement. Developers had wings to weight and lengthen the nose of the aircraft. In KB Kuznetsova specially created for this aircraft engines NK-8 (Rod - 9500 kg) and a modernized version of the NC-8-4 (increased thirst 10 500 kg). The engine was surprisingly easy and reliable because the design used titanium alloys, and all units are located in the bottom of the engine.
However, the project and testing of this engine was also heavy. It was decided to mount the double-D-30KU constructed P. Solovyov (Rod 11 000 kg). Engine expended little fuel and had a reverse device. Regardless of the diameter of the new engines are easily installed in the gondola, and thus did not have to increase their midsection. Parallel to this, the aerodynamic shape of gondolas have been improved, which has led to an improvement in cruising flight modes. That IL-62 the first time in the Soviet Union used the system reverses the thrust engines, which allowed to land on the runway in adverse weather conditions and ice. The distance run has decreased too.
IL-62 - is a monoplane with low-lying swept wings, with built-in over the top of the fin stabilizer, engines on pylons attached to the aft fuselage and tricycle landing gear system. The entire fuselage monocoque represented as an elliptic cross section. Layout options have one significant difference - the number of seats (186, 168 and 138). There are also cabins for crew members 5, kitchen, cloakroom, 5 bathrooms and two utility compartment, front and rear.
Wings trehlonzhirovanye, monobloc, reinforced panels of extruded blanks. The tail and the nose of the wing are presented in the form of standard riveted structures. All ailerons and rudders found on 2 trimmer. Flaps and spoilers create a tough scheduling and reduce mileage landing mode. And thanks to a special electrical systems with the presence of two engines changing the angle of the establishment of the stabilizer.
Tanks-fuel compartments are located in the wing, four main and three additional, from which fuel is pumped via pumps. Each of the engine compartment of your consumables. For drenazhirovaniya tanks has additional drainage system. Emergency fuel drain system works thanks to 7 electric pump. At the ends of the wings there are holes drain pipes. The fuel tanks fit no less than one hundred thousand liters of kerosene.
Chassis IL-62 consists of two main pillars on four wheels. Front support - two-wheel drive, and there is an extra tail. The front can be controlled, and braking. On the main bearing mounted powerful disc brakes. Also there is an additional braking system and in case of emergency. In turn, hydraulics, too, is divided into primary and secondary. The main hydraulic system is responsible for the production and the chassis cleaning, parking and the main brake system control of the front support and the wiper and interceptors.
To protect the special system of the flight icing. He does not become covered with ice socks wings, empennage, air intakes, engine, cockpit windshield and windows. This and other systems supplied with electricity via four alternators. DC The mechanism is powered from the main system. start the engine itself is provoked by compressed air flow from the TA-6 (turbine side). When the aircraft is on the ground, the TA-6 produces electricity to recharge the onboard network. The same principle works supply of fresh air to the cockpit and in the cabin.
IL-62 first took to the skies in January 63 years with engines AL-7. In April, the first 1964 his flight made a second IL-built with engines NK 62-8. It worked out and checked the compatibility of all systems. In 1965 of the sky fell 3-second prototype, which was the beginning of serial production. After the state tests in 1967 passenger liner dalnomagistralnogo year began. Many appreciated as an excellent aircraft air machine. It not only drew level with similar samples zakordonnogo production, but in many ways ahead of them.
IL-62 began to perform a large number of flights, both intercity and intercontinental. Such companies, as "Air France","Jal"and KLM even took a plane for continuous operation. In this high-tech aircraft we worked well together, and economic indicators, and all thanks to high-quality design, consulting engineers and technologists of OKB. Ilyushin. During the entire existence of the aircraft it was established 250 copies of IL-62 and IL-62M. About eighty of them flew to China Airlines, North Korea, Angola, Hungary, Poland, Cuba, Romania and many others.
The first flight of the IL-made 62 2 1963 year in January. He was installed engines with a thrust on AL7 75kN. Then AL7 were replaced by engines with a thrust of NK8 95kN each. Four engines located on pylons in the rear fuselage. Such an arrangement allows to achieve low noise in the passenger compartment. Of these four motors have only two external reverse thrust. Wing sweep 35 degrees. Aircraft fuel tanks are located in the cavities of the wing. The design of the aircraft is such that it is able to land in case of failure of two engines. The crew consists of two pilots, a flight engineer, navigator and radio operator. The first prototype flight on an empty IL-62 «Aeroflot» has made March 10 1963 years on the route Moscow-Khabarovsk. A first flight with passengers in March 1967 years on the route Moscow-Khabarovsk-Moscow and Novosibirsk. And on the international route of IL-62 15 September 1967 departed years. This flight was the Moscow-Montreal, on the occasion of the World Exhibition in Montreal.
IL-62 photo salon
Only about 230 machines were built. 75 more of them were exported. Besides "Aeroflot"Aircraft was delivered to many friendly countries. Serial production of the IL-62 aircraft continued to 1980 years. In 1970 years it was released a modified version of the aircraft - IL-62M. This version is widespread. The upgraded IL-62M differed in particular, the installation of more powerful and economical engines D-30, which replaced the original NC-8, and an additional fuel tank, located in the tail fin of the aircraft. Increased maximum takeoff weight with 155 tons do165 tons. This version is the first was presented in Paris in 1971 year and put into operation within three years.
IL-62 interior scheme
In 1987 year version of the Ilyushin Il-62MK it was presented. This version had a larger seating capacity - 186 places. Also in this version it was hard wing aircraft.
Features Ilyushin Il-62:
Length: 53,12 m.
Height: 12,35 m.
Wingspan: 43,2 m.
Empty weight: 70400 kg.
Maximum speed: 875 km / h.
Cruising speed: 850 km / h.
Range: 11045 km.
Wing area: 279,55 sq.m.
Ceiling: 14000 m.
Number of seats: 186 places
Crew: 5 people
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