IL-54 - subsonic bomber with two turbojet engines AL-7 under wing pylons and a great scheme chassis.
History of the IL-54
Continuing to work towards improving jet bomber, focusing on improving his striking power and performance, the team constructs SV Ilyushin pristupki the development of transonic jet bomber Il-54 1952 in the year.
The new model aircraft must have a maximum flight speed and 2400-2750 km range of practical, 3 thousand. Kg bomb load. The development of such a bomber aircraft performance data while performing quite complex engineering task.
To achieve such a hypersonic flight speed needed to be installed on the plane too thin wing with a sweep. Providing obtain maximum speed without breaking the controllability and stability, a wing at cruising speed was much worse aerodynamic efficiency, as opposed to less-swept wings. As a result, to achieve the required range of flight on an airplane could only by increasing the supply of fuel. It was found that the thin wing, having a major sweep turned off and landing less effective, in combination with increased take-off weight of the aircraft led to an increase in landing speed and off speed IL-54, the runway length.
Experimental and computational studies TsAGI EDO and allowed to find the optimum combination of weight, dimensions and traction needs IL-54 motors, resulting in failed to fulfill all requirements for the aircraft of similar purpose. The basis of the basic parameters of the selected 2 layout diagrams of the aircraft have been established.
SV Ilyushin approved the first scheme in March 1953 years. It involves the creation of IL-54 by type sredneplana with two turbojet engines, and who were in the wing roots, and on top of it is horizontal tail. The main wheels on this aircraft were removed forward flight (in the process of cleaning the wheel rotates through 90 degrees) mezhlonzherennoe space wing box.
During the subsequent improvement of the layout scheme it was abandoned due to the fact that the calculated speed of flight exhibit strong interference resistance gondolas engines, which were close to the fuselage, due to the need to create large compartments for gear in the power of the wing box, which increased its weight complicated and very power of the wing pattern.
The second layout scheme was approved in November 1953 years. It was developed under the control of AM Cradle, had two engines AL-7. IL-54 began to create the scheme vysokoplana with a simple arrangement of the horizontal tail. Engines in this model was mounted in the gondola (just as in the IL-22), which had been suspended under the wing. This placement engines contributed to their lower resistance at high flight speeds. Air intakes of engines were on the runway is quite high, and when working on the ground are not sucked any foreign objects from the surface.
The aircraft IL-54 used bike chassis with the basic scheme supports facing away from each other, with dual wheels. Thin wing barely put a wheel marker, and this is not to mention the crimped engine nacelles. The front landing gear was controlled. As for the back, it was behind the bomb bay at a great distance from the center of mass. As a result, the front was a heavy load, which made it difficult to peel off the ground while maintaining the front support landing angle at takeoff and during the run after landing. Thus, a running path and the plane has increased. To facilitate the separation of the support at the rear of the support structure included a special mechanism by which, in fact, ensured the shortening back support during the takeoff run.
Cut-outs in the bottom of the fuselage under the bomb bay, radar antenna and chassis compartments, severe stress, which were transferred during the landing by cycling supports the chassis, significantly complicated the creation of the fuselage structure.
Wing caisson with power, who had frequent stringer and set thick plating, the connector has been on the chord line around the wing span. Similarly, the same connector construction was stabilizer fin and aircraft.
IL-54 crew consists of three people: the navigator, the pilot and radio operator-gunner aft, which are placed in two airtight cabins (front and rear). The navigator and the pilot got the plane through a small door located on the right side of the fuselage, while the arrows - in his cabin. Between the cockpit and the navigator is a passage through which they can communicate with each other in flight. All jobs are characterized by strong armor protection. The crew in the event of an emergency in flight could leave the machine with ejection seats. Gunner and navigator ejected down, the pilot - up. When an emergency landing on the water they can get through the top hatches and use rescue boat LAS 5M.
Equipment and armament of the aircraft ensured its successful application in difficult wartime conditions against vehicles of the enemy, troops and military equipment, can be used for engineering facilities and the destruction of strongholds located in the tactical depth of the defense and on the battlefield by the action of a single aircraft, as and in compounds with different heights at countering enemy ground air speed and fighter aircraft, in any weather conditions, day and night.
IL-54 was used as a bomber and torpedo bomber and low altitude torpedo, training aircraft and fotorazvedchik.
|Wing area, m2||84.60|
|engine's type||2 turbojet engine AL-7F|
|neforsirovannom||X 2 6500|
|forced||X 2 10000|
|Speed, km / h|
|at the height of the maximum||1250|
|highest in the land||1155|
|Flight distance, km||3000|
|Practical ceiling, m||14000|
|Armament:||3 23 mm x HP-23 23 or two-mm gun TKB-4957: to protect the front hemisphere of one fixed front gun mounted on the left side of the fuselage; in the rear fuselage of the aircraft aft gun mount (IL-K8) remote electro-hydraulic two mobile guns. Bomb load on the inside of the suspension: normal - 3000 kg, maximum - 5000 kg.|
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